BarryWong/FAQ

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Contents

常见问题

和其它 Linux 发行版本一样,在使用中我们会有很多问题。 在这里我们整理了一些常见的问题。 你也许会对 FedoraMyths 页面感兴趣, 在这里详细说明了有关 Fedora 的部分谣言以及它们的事实。 如果这里没有回答你的问题,请查看页面下面的 Fedora 资源

你也可以查看 英文的 FAQ ,如果在这里找不到你想要的答案,你可以自行添加,或者联系 BarryWong


准备开始

为什么需要使用 Fedora ?

Fedora Linux 是一个健壮的操作系统,它包含了最新最好的免费开源软件,所以 Fedora 是你不二的选择。 想要详细了解 Fedora ,请点击下面的链接:

我从哪里可以获取 Fedora ?我可以重新发布 Fedora 或者制作它的派生版本吗?

你可以通过下载得到 Fedora ,并且我们极力的鼓励你按照你的需要修改、发布 Fedora。 一些服从免费开源软件许可协议 (比如 GPL 协议) 的源代码允许你重新修改或者发布你自己的 Fedora 版本。 但是,任何使用必须遵从 Fedora 标识使用准则 。 详细信息请点击:

我的硬件能够支持 Fedora 吗?

Linux 能够支持各种类型的组件及外部设备。 Fedora 包含各种硬件驱动程序来响应 Linux ,这些驱动程序是由项目提供的。 在 Fedora 安装过程中,系统会自动检测支持的硬件并为它们安装合适的驱动程序。

一些特殊的硬件模块还并没有被 Linux 所支持,或者你需要安装厂商提供的硬件驱动程序。 如果 Fedora 没有自动检测到此硬件,你可能需要安装附加的驱动程序或者固件。

Note.png 网络连接
在系统安装结束后,你可能需要对调制解调器或者无线网卡进行附加的配置。 请参考有关网络连接的问题来获取更多的信息。

有关 Linux 支持的各种硬件的详细信息,请查看下面的网址:

Fedora 发行注记文档列出了已知的硬件问题,请点击:

有关 Fedora 支持的硬件,请查看 硬件认证 .

我怎样安装 Fedora ?

Fedora 提供了非常友好的用户安装界面,包括图形化界面和文本界面。 Fedora 安装指南列出了每一步的详细说明:

使用 Fedora

我怎样设置网络连接? Fedora 支持无线连接吗?

Fedora 默认以 DHCP 方式自动设置你的网卡。 如果你的电脑是以有线或者 DSL 方式连接网络,不需要进一步的设置了。

如果你是以其它方式连接网络,那么你可能需要安装 Network Manager 。 这个工具可以自动设置你的网络和无线连接,并且支持 VPN 连接。 便携式计算机需要它来切换不同的网络。 请参看:

Fedora 也提供 system-config-network 工具,使用它可以手动设置网络配置。 运行 system-config-network,请打开 系统 > 管理 > 网络

我怎样在 Fedora 上安装新的软件? 有类似 APT 的工具吗?

'yum' 工具能够帮助你管理系统上的软件。 'yum' 工具通过访问网络来下载安装最新的软件包。 Fedora 系统也包含了一个图形化的 'yum' 工具,请打开 程序 > 添加/删除软件

从 Fedora Core 4 开始,系统可以自动从 Core 和 Extras 软件库下载软件,这两个软件库由 Fedora 项目提供维护。 从 Fedora 7 开始,Core 和 Extras 软件库结合到一起,提供了超过 7000 个软件包。

有关 'yum' 的更多信息,请阅读:

Apt 也在 Fedora 软件库中,但是不是默认的软件管理器,详细信息请点击 APT 页面:

我怎样保持系统更新?

Fedora Core 6 以及更高版本提供了一个桌面提示程序 Puplet ,它会自动提醒你当前的软件包更新信息。 如果要手动查找更新,请选择 程序 > 系统工具 > 软件包更新工具 。 这个工具会在 'yum' 软件库中查找你的系统所有软件的更新。

如果要使用命令行查找系统更新,请使用下面的命令:

su -c 'yum update'

这个命令需要你输入 'root' 帐户密码。

Fedora Core 4 以及以前版本使用的是 'up2date' 程序以及一个桌面警告图标。 这个程序在 Fedora Core 5 以后被 'Pup' 软件更新程序取代。

Fedora 能够实现自动更新吗?

是的,尽管自动更新可能并不是对所有系统均适用。 有关是否以及怎样使用自动更新请参看 http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/AutoUpdates 。 Fedora Core 6 以及以上版本提供了一个后台程序 yum-updatesd ,它用来被设置执行自动更新。

我怎样得到软件包更新的通知?

Fedora Core 6 以及以上版本的系统提供了一个桌面提示程序 'Puplet' ,它可以自动提示你软件包更新信息。 如果想接收到软件更新信息,你可以加入到邮件列表或者 RSS :

如果想得到其它 Fedora 项目的公告信息,你可以加入到下面的邮件列表:

Why doesn't Fedora include support for proprietary formats like MP3 or MPEG?

The MP3 and MPEG formats are covered by patents, and the patent owners have not released the technologies under licenses which are compatible with Fedora's requirements.

Fedora only supports and includes free and open source software. Technologies under stringent copyright or patent restrictions are not included in Fedora. For more information about multimedia support in Fedora, including more about MP3 and MPEG support, see the Multimedia section:

Why doesn't Fedora include DVD video playback support?

The DVD video formats are covered by patents, and the patent owners have not released the technologies under licenses which are compatible with Fedora's requirements. Many DVD videos also use a copy protection technology, and the code necessary to play those videos may violate the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), a copyright law of the United States.

Fedora only supports and includes free and open source software. Technologies under stringent copyright or patent restrictions are not included in Fedora. For more information about multimedia support in Fedora, including more about DVD video support, see the Multimedia section:

Why doesn't Fedora include proprietary software like Adobe's Acrobat Reader, Adobe's Flash Player, or RealPlayer?

Fedora only supports and includes free and open source software. No proprietary programs are included in Fedora. Many of these programs are available for Fedora, and you are free to obtain them from another vendor. For more information, see the ForbiddenItems page:

Does Fedora include Java?

Fedora includes open source software to run and develop Java applications, along with several well-known open source Java applications. Developers are currently finalizing an open source Web browser plugin for Java applets.

Please refer to our ["JavaFAQ"] page for information regarding Java and Fedora:

What is SELinux, and where can I read more about it?

Fedora is the first mainstream operating system in the world to provide a Mandatory Access Control (MAC) security system by default, using the SELinux framework. The SELinux configuration in Fedora Core 4 and above provides enhanced security by restricting the privileges of processes running on a Fedora system. These restrictions drastically reduce the impact of security vulnerabilities, since services have only limited access to the rest of the system. SELinux in Fedora also has a 'strict' policy, which is useful for very security-sensitive environments. There are other security systems enabled through the SELinux framework, such as MLS, MCS and RBAC, which are provided in Fedora Core 5 and above.

Refer to the following document for more information on the SELinux implementation in Fedora:

What is Xen? Where can I learn about setting up Xen?

Xen enables multiple operating systems to run simultaneously on the same machine with little reduction in overall performance. Each operating system is allocated some of the resources of the host computer. With Xen, administrators may also move a running operating system between machines without disrupting or shutting down services. Existing virtual machine and virtual server products offer similar facilities, but lack the same level of performance and integration that the Xen approach offers.

Fedora Core 4 includes experimental Xen support. Fedora Core 5 and above provide a more robust implementation. The Xen page can help you get started:

When is the next release of Fedora? What is the release schedule?

See the Fedora Project Releases Schedule page:

How long is each release of Fedora maintained?

Fedora Project maintains any particular release of Fedora for a month after two subsequent releases. The Fedora release lifecycle is explained in more detail:

Where can I find information on Fedora security updates?

See Fedora Security Advisories page.

What is the errata policy for The Fedora Project?

Security updates, bugfix updates, and new feature updates will all be available, through Red Hat and third parties. Updates may be staged (first made available for public qualification, then later for general consumption) when appropriate. In drastic cases, we may remove a package from The Fedora Project if we judge that a necessary security update is too problematic/disruptive to the larger goals of the project. Availability of updates should not be misconstrued as support for anything other than continued development and innovation of the code base.

Red Hat will not be providing an SLA (Service Level Agreement) for resolution times for updates for The Fedora Project. Security updates will take priority. For packages maintained by external parties, Red Hat may respond to security holes by deprecating packages if the external maintainers do not provide updates in a reasonable time. Users who want support, or maintenance according to an SLA, may purchase the appropriate Red Hat Enterprise Linux product for their use.

I have an older Fedora release. Can I upgrade my existing installation?

Yes. For more information on upgrading options, refer to the DistributionUpgrades page:

We recommend that you do not try to upgrade a Fedora system with yum. If you choose to do so, however, this page provides some information on the necessary steps to minimize the issues:

The information on the page listed above is provided by the community, without any guarantees. The Fedora Project does not recommend upgrading systems with software management applications.

Help

Where can I find help?

You can find documentation and get help through forums, IRC, or mailing lists from others in the Fedora community. See the ["Communicate"] page for more information:

Please do not contact Fedora developers directly, or use the special developer channels, for end-user support. The developers are very busy writing and maintaining Fedora software and do not have much spare time for these issues.

I hear all of these terms that are unfamiliar, what do they mean?

For definitions to many of the most common terms, refer to the Glossary .

Where can I report bugs or request features for software packages existing in Fedora?

Refer to the BugsAndFeatureRequests page for guidance on this.

Where I can learn more about security features and status in Fedora? How do I report a security bug?

Refer to the ["Security"] page for all of this information.

I'm experiencing a problem, and I think it might be my hardware. Where should I look?

Check the HardwareProblems page before posting bugs that might be known hardware problems.

Where can I request a newer version of a package in Fedora?

File a request in http://bugzilla.redhat.com against the particular package you would like to have a update. Providing more details on why you want that particular update would be useful information for the package maintainers.


I have a question that isn't in this list. Where else can I find help?

See the links for Fedora Resources at the bottom of this page.

About Fedora

What is Fedora?

Fedora is a Linux-based operating system that showcases the latest in free and open source software. Fedora is always free for anyone to use, modify, and distribute. It is built by people across the globe who work together as a community: the Fedora Project. The Fedora Project is open and anyone is welcome to join. The Fedora Project is out front for you, leading the advancement of free, open software and content.


What are the objectives of Fedora?

Why a project instead of a product?

A global steering committee at Red Hat decided that Red Hat Linux was suffering from too many compromises as a retail product, and that the company should redirect efforts toward creating a community-based project. Rather than being subject to retail product delivery schedules, Fedora is released on schedules set by a decision-making process that is open, and influenced by the community.

What are the primary benefits of this change?

Changing the product to a project will:

  • Ensure that users can get the latest bits as quickly as possible.
  • Create new opportunities for developers and users to participate in The Fedora Project development by opening up the full development process for anyone to see and join if they'd like.
  • Allow us to use The Fedora Project to develop and mature the latest, greatest technologies.
  • Speed up the development process, taking better advantage of the inherent strengths of the open source model.

Will Red Hat provide formal technical support for The Fedora Project?

No, no formal Web or phone support for The Fedora Project will be available from Red Hat. Red Hat's supported product line will be based in part on Fedora, and our development will be done externally as part of The Fedora Project as much as possible. Each new release of our supported products will be based in part on a recent release of Fedora.

Will Red Hat's supported products contain all the packages found in Fedora?

In order to focus our efforts and limit support costs, we will probably select a subset of packages found in Fedora to include in the supported product line. One of the goals of The Fedora Project is to encourage a pool of high-quality add-on packages; if we're successful, there will be so many we won't be able to support all of them.

How will The Fedora Project be made available to the public?

Fedora releases will be available as ISO images for both CDs and DVDs, and will also be available through other channels such as third-party online sales of physical media; distribution at Linux User Groups, included in magazines and in books, and maybe even handed out at trade shows. The bits may be actively pushed into content sharing networks such as BitTorrent. (Not all mechanisms will be used for each release, except that ISOs will be freely available for each release.)

Will Fedora be sold in retail?

Fedora will not be sold through the retail channel as a shrinkwrapped box. There is no list price for Fedora. The rapid development pace we expect for Fedora doesn't suit retail distribution — it is a lot of work to get a box product in and out of the channel, and retail isn't set up to efficiently handle software that is updated as often as every six months. Also, the creation of packaging and other materials that are necessary for retail significantly slows down the time to market, which means that users can't get the freshest bits when they are still truly fresh. Further information on Red Hat's retail product line is available at the Red Hat website.

What is the difference between "Fedora", "The Fedora Project", and "Fedora"?

The Fedora Project is a collection of sub-projects. Fedora Distribution is the central project, which aims to provide a platform with the best in free and open source software. Fedora generally refers to the Fedora Project as a whole, and is sometimes used to refer to Fedora or a system running a collection of software from the Fedora Project.

Whom can I contact in the individual Fedora sub-projects?

Try the project's mailing list first, which gives the project leads and other community members the chance to help you. You can find information for the various projects on the ["Communicate"] page.

Contact information for project leads is available at:

http://fedora.redhat.com/About/contact.html

How is the Fedora Project organized and governed?

The Fedora Project is managed by a board of community members and Red Hat employees, with Red Hat providing significant funding and other services such as bandwidth and hosting, broad direction, engineering, and marketing.

The Fedora Project is a collection of many smaller projects , working together to produce the platform and build the supporting community. These different sub-projects are independent of one another, but work together to achieve common goals and coordinate efforts.

Each of the sub-projects has leads or a Steering Committee to organize and guide that project's development. The Fedora Project operates as a meritocracy , where responsibility and power are granted based upon ability and effort. The people who lead Fedora are selected because they have proven they are willing and able to do so.

What kind of project management method does each Fedora sub-project use?

Each project has either leads or a Steering Committee to guide it. Individual contributors are given a great deal of freedom to work on whatever they choose, but they are asked to follow the guidance from the project's committee for processes and approval for new initiatives.

Like other responsibilities in the Fedora Project, committee membership is based largely upon merit, but all voices are welcome, and new ideas and opinions will be given due attention. Innovating and leading new ideas is a great way to earn recognition within the community.

Contributors can join committee members in regular IRC meetings. The meetings are open, and minutes are made publicly available and usually posted to the appropriate mailing list. Raw IRC logs are also sometimes available.

Most sub-projects keep a schedule of tasks on this wiki. Check the ["Projects"] page for links to individual sub-project pages. From those individual pages, you can find all of the available information for that project.

Does the Fedora Project assign tasks to contributors, or do the contributors decide what to do?

Interested volunteers are encouraged to take up the tasks they would like to contribute towards. You can avoid redundant tasks by posting to the relevant project list and coordinating with other interested community members. If you're not sure where you want to contribute, see the HelpWanted page for different areas that can use your help. The Fedora Mentors project can guide you if you need further help.

Is there a partnership program between schools or non-profits and Fedora?

Not at present. If you have any ideas or suggestions to create such a program, please bring it to the attention of Fedora Marketing . Interested schools and non-profits are welcome to join us for discussions.

Is there a partnership program between LUGs and Fedora?

We attempt to work with Linux User Groups in whatever ways we can. Our list of LUG contacts is on our LinuxUserGroups page. If you would like to represent your LUG, please add your LUG to that list. We also encourage our Ambassadors to engage their local LUGs.

Can schools and non-profits reference the "Fedora Project" name and other Fedora marks if they are interacting with the Fedora community?

Yes, as long as they make it clear whether or not they are representing the Project. If they would like to represent the Project, they can approach and coordinate with the Fedora Marketing team. This and other uses of Fedora marks are subject to the terms of the Trademark Guidelines .

Is there a certification program for third-party applications running on Fedora?

No. The Fedora Project is dedicated to providing the best in free and open source software. Fedora is the pinnacle of innovative, open solutions, and is developed with a rapid release cycle. Fedora Package Collection allows a vast array of additional Free and open source solutions to be contributed by the community and maintained for Fedora. Beyond these projects, the Fedora Project does not certify any third-party applications.

Formal ISV certification is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which shares many of Fedora's features, but is provided on a longer release cycle and is commercially supported for 7 years.


Is there a certification program for hardware that works with Fedora?

Fedora runs on a large variety of hardware, and the list of working hardware is constantly growing larger. Because Fedora improvements occur very rapidly and consistently, including hardware support, a Hardware Compatibility List was deemed too time-consuming and not worthwhile. Alternative methods of tracking working hardware have been suggested, but the consensus is that manually maintaining a complete list is unfeasible.

We are collecting hardware information directly from the users anonymously in a opt-in method, through the smolt project. We are always trying to find ways to improve Fedora's hardware support, and welcome constructive feedback.

A compatibility list is maintained for Red Hat Enterprise Linux at http://bugzilla.redhat.com/hcl. It will closely parallel Fedora's compatibility.

Is the Fedora Project independent of Red Hat, Inc.?

The Fedora Project is a community project, separate from Red Hat, but Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project and provides a great deal of valuable management and resources to the Fedora Project. Red Hat uses the material that the Fedora Project produces to develop its enterprise platform offerings. Red Hat has a strong interest in Fedora, and the success of the Fedora Project has been thanks to the great contributions of Red Hat.

What is the relationship between Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux?

Permalink

Both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) are open source. Fedora is a community project and serves as the base platform on which RHEL is built. The cost of RHEL comes from the subscription, which provides assorted certifications and support for additional architectures, as well as 7 years of enterprise support. Red Hat also enhances its RHEL offerings with additional software and with certification programs. Misinformation and confusion notwithstanding, the base RHEL distribution is open source, and the complete source code can always be downloaded from Red Hat's FTP servers .

Red Hat provides a comparison between the two options on their website:

More information on the release history and lineage is available from the following link:

When you purchase RHEL, you are also helping to support Fedora. Since Red Hat sponsors Fedora, what is good for Red Hat is usually good for Fedora.

For Fedora Contributors

Why should I help?

Your name in lights, an online CV, and maybe a trip to a FUDCon.

First, contribute to Fedora and you may get your name in the distribution. Hey, fair is fair.

Second, if you're a Fedora contributor, you don't need a fancy resume; you can just tell potential employers to 'Google' your name.

Third, top Fedora contributors can receive travel stipends to attend the Fedora Users and Developers Conference nearest them. You will have the opportunity to meet some of the giants of the open source movement in person, as their peers and equals.

And last, you'd be playing with this stuff anyway. Spend your time doing stuff that you will enjoy and that others will use. What more incentive do you need? Join us.

I'm interested in contributing to Fedora, where can I get started?

Refer to our HelpWanted page to learn where help is needed and how to get going. You might also be interested in our ["Mentors"] program.

What are some interesting new project ideas that are important to Fedora?

See the FedoraBounties page for project ideas important to Fedora.

How can I package software for Fedora users? Where can I find information for contributing to Fedora Package Collection?

The ["PackageMaintainers"] page will point you to all kinds of help.

Where can I find information for contributing to the Fedora Documentation Project?

Some good links for help can be found on the DocsProject page.


Where else can I find answers?