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本文档由 Rahul Sundaram 维护。请自由地编辑此维基,或者联系维护者提供各种反馈意见。

正如其他的 Linux 发行版一样,Fedora 也常常被问到许多问题,我们试着将一些常见问题的回答放在这里。您可能也对 Fedora_myths 页感兴趣,该页描述了一些关于 Fedora 的典型误解和事实。如果本 FAQ 没有回答您的问题,请参考在本页最后列出的其他 Fedora 资源。

Contents

开始

我为什么应该使用 Fedora?

您应该使用 Fedora,因为它包含了最好、最新,以及最健壮的已有自由和开源软件。 概述页面详细描述了许多 Fedora 的优点。

哪些人群适合使用 Fedora?

我们定位于以下广泛的用户群体:

  • Linux 志愿者/爱好者
  • 好用电脑的人
  • 经常进行协作的人员
  • 广泛的生产力用户

详细信息,请参考用户群页面。

我能从哪得到 Fedora?我能够重新分发 Fedora 或制作一个衍生版吗?

您可以下载、使用、以及重新分发Fedora,而且我们强烈鼓励您这样做。源代码使用的自由和开源许可证(如GPL)允许您重新分发或修改 Fedora,不过所有使用都必须遵从Fedora 商标指南。详情请参见:

我的硬件和Fedora兼容吗?

Linux 能支持所有类型的组件和外设。Fedora 包括所有 Linux 硬件支持项目提供的驱动。Fedora 安装进程将自动检测您计算机上的被支持的硬件。

一些特定类型的硬件需要由厂商提供的专有驱动或暂时不能被 Linux 支持。如果 Fedora 无法自动检测到一个设备,您可能需要手工安装附加的驱动或固件。

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网络连接
调制解调器和无线网络连接需要在安装进程结束后进行额外的配置。更多信息,请参考网络连接有关问题。

如下网站提供了更为详细的 Linux 硬件支持信息:

Fedora 发行注记提供了一些特定硬件型号的已知问题:

更多关于 Fedora 硬件政策的信息,请参考在硬件认证中提出的问题。

如何安装 Fedora?

Fedora 提供了对用户十分友好的安装界面,包括图形和命令行界面。请阅读相关文档以了解更多:

Live CD/DVD 镜像和常规的安装镜像有什么不同?

  • Live 镜像提供的软件包是常规 CD/DVD 镜像中可用的软件包的一个子集。二者都连接到同样的软件仓库,那里有着所有的软件包。
  • Live 镜像安装时不允许选择或升级软件包,因为它只是将安装截止上的文件系统拷贝到硬盘或 USB 磁盘。安装完成后启动进入新系统时,您可以使用 PackageKit 或者 yum 根据自己所需添加删除软件包。
  • Live 镜像在 i586 架构上不工作,它至少需要 i686 架构。


使用 Fedora

如何配置网络连接?Fedora 对无线连接的支持如何?

缺省情况下,Fedora 会配置您电脑上的网卡使用 DHCP 自动获取正确的网络配置。如果您的电脑连接的是有线网络或者 DSL 路由器,那么就不需要再做进一步配置。

对于其他类型的连接,您可以使用 Network Manager,它在 Fedora 中缺省已经安装启用。这个新系统提供自动的网络配置,包括无线配置,而且提供了 VPN 连接的配置界面。使用 NetworkManager,笔记本电脑可以在不同网络之间无缝切换。参考 docs.fedoraproject.org 上的系统管理员指南(System Administrator's Guide)。

另外还可以参考 docs.fedoraproject.org 上的 Fedora 无线指南(Fedora Wireless Guide)以了解更多有关无线以及它的 Fedora 中的实现等信息。

如何在 Fedora 中安装新软件?有类似 APT 的工具吗?

yum 会帮助您管理系统上的软件。yum 会访问称为“软件仓库”的网站,下载安装软件包的最新版本。Fedora 系统还包含了一个 yum 的图形界面,它位于主菜单的“应用程序 > 添加/删除软件”。

Fedora 目前包含了超过 15,000 个软件包。

请参阅以下页面了解关于 yum 的更多信息:

Apt 也在 Fedora 的软件仓库中,但没有作为默认的包管理器。参见 APT 页面了解详细信息:

如何保持 Fedora 系统最新?

Fedora 包含了 PackageKit,每当有更新时它会提供桌面提醒以自动通知您。要手动完成系统更新,选择 系统 > 管理 > 更新系统。这个使用程序会更新您系统中由 yum 软件仓库提供的所有软件。

要从命令行开始完整的系统更新,在提示符处输入如下命令:

su -c 'yum update'

当出现提示时输入 root 密码。

Fedora 可以自动更新吗?

是的,尽管自动更新并不适合所有系统。请参考 AutoUpdates 获知有关在您的 Fedora 系统中是否使用这个特性以及如何使用的更多细节。您可以在 系统 > 首选项 > 系统 > 软件更新 里进行设置。

如何获得软件新发行版本的通知?

Fedora 包含的 PackageKit 可以在每当有可用更新时通知您。如果想要在新软件以及软件更新一经出现时就收到通知,您可以订阅通告邮件列表或 RSS 源:

其他重要通告可以通过订阅 Fedora 项目通告邮件列表来获得:

Yum 或 添加/删除软件(PackageKit) 支持从 CD/DVD 介质安装吗?

PackageKit 对它提供支持的工作还在进展中。更多请参见 PackageKit FAQ。至于使用介质作为 yum 软件仓库,请参阅 http://www.city-fan.org/tips/SubsetRepositories。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含对专有格式例如 MP3 或 MPEG 的支持?

MP3 和 MPEG 格式受专利保护,专利持有人没有将这些技术以兼容于 Fedora 的需求的许可证发布。

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含严格版权或专利限制下的技术。要了解更多有关 Fedora 中多媒体支持的信息,包括更多有关 MP3 和 MPEG 支持的内容,请参考 Multimedia 页面。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含 DVD 视频播放支持?

DVD 视频格式受专利保护,专利持有人没有将这些技术以兼容于 Fedora 的需求的许可证发布。许多 DVD 视频还使用一种拷贝保护技术,播放这些视频所需的代码可能违反 美国的版权法律数字千年版权法案(Digital Millennium Copyright Act, DMCA)的规定。

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含严格版权或专利限制下的技术。要了解更多有关 Fedora 中多媒体支持的信息,包括更多有关 DVD 视频支持的内容,请参考 Multimedia 页面。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含 Adobe 的 Acrobat Reader,Adobe 的 Flash Player,或者 RealPlayer 等专有软件?

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含专有软件。这些程序中的许多可用在 Fedora 中,您可以从其他厂商获得它们。要了解更多信息,参见 ForbiddenItems 页面。

Fedora 中有 Java 吗?

是的,有。Fedora 包含 OpenJDK,它是自由开源许可证下的 Sun Java。请参阅我们的 JavaFAQ 页面以了解有关 Java 和 Fedora 的信息。

什么是 SELinux,在哪里获知关于它的更多信息?

Fedora 是世界上第一个默认提供强制访问控制(Mandatory Access Control, MAC)安全系统的主流操作系统,使用的正是 SELinux 框架。通过限制系统上进程的权限,Fedora 中的 SELinux 配置提供了增强的安全性。这些限制很大程度上减小了安全漏洞的影响,因为服务对系统的其他部分只有有限的访问权限。Fedora 中的 SELinux 还有一个“严格”策略,在对安全非常敏感的环境中会很有用。还有其他一些安全系统通过 SELinux 框架被启用,例如 MLS、MCS 以及 RBAC。

请参考如下文档以了解有关 Fedora 中 SELinux 实现的更多信息:

什么是虚拟化?我可以在哪学习使用它?

Fedora 包含了对虚拟化的广泛支持。这使得多个操作系统可以同时运行在同一机器上,整体性能只能很少降低。每个操作系统都分配宿主计算机的部分资源。管理员还可以在机器之间移动正在运行的操作系统,无需打断或关闭服务。

Virtualization 页面可以帮助您入门。

Fedora 的下一个版本什么时候发布?发布日程是什么?

请参阅 Fedora 项目发布日程 页面。

Fedora 的每个发布版本维护多久?

Fedora 项目维护每个发布版本到两个后继版本后一个月。Fedora 发布版本的生命周期在如下页面详细介绍:

在哪里可以找到有关 Fedora 安全更新的信息?

参见 Fedora 安全公告 页面。

Fedora 项目的勘误或更新策略是什么?

Red Hat 和第三方会提供安全更新、bug 修复更新和新特性更新。在合适的时候更新可能会被暂缓推出(先做公共评估,之后再推向大众)。在激烈的情形下,如果我们认定必要的安全更新对 Fedora 项目更大的目标来说有大问题或破坏性太大,我们可能会将软件包从项目中移除。可用更新不应被误解为除继续开发和代码革新之外的任何支持。一些更新破坏性较大因此不会包含在广泛发布版本中,它们只会进入开发分支,被后继的广泛发布版本包含。仅仅继续更新不会得到下一个发布版本,如果确实想要,您需要明确地进行发行版升级。对每个发布版本来说,在其生命周期中会有更新可用,参见 LifeCycle 页面。

Red Hat 不会为 Fedora 项目的更新解决时间提供服务等级约定(Service Level Agreement, SLA)。安全更新会有较高优先级。对于由第三方维护的软件包,如果其维护人员没有在合理的时间内提供更新,Red Hat 可能以废弃软件包的方式回应安全漏洞。想要支持或依据 SLA 提供维护的用户可以购买合适的 Red Hat 企业级 Linux 产品使用。

我有一个预发布版本的 Fedora。我可以升级到最终版吗?

是的。请参考 升级预发布版到最终版 了解其详情。

我有一个旧版 Fedora。我可以升级现有安装吗?

当然可以。请参阅 DistributionUpgrades 页面了解有关升级选项的更多信息。

求助

我可以在哪里找到帮助?

您可以找到文档,通过论坛、IRC、或者邮件列表从 Fedora 社区中的其他人那里获得帮助。更多信息请参考 Communicate 页面。

寻求终端用户支持时请不要直接联系 Fedora 开发者或者使用特殊的开发者频道。开发者有繁忙的任务编写维护 Fedora 软件,他们没有很多空余时间处理这些问题。

我听到许多不熟悉的字眼,它们都是什么意思?

要了解最常用的术语的定义,请参阅术语表页面。

我在哪里向 Fedora 中存在的软件包报告 bug 或者请求新特性?

请参阅 BugsAndFeatureRequests 页面寻求这方面的指导。

我在哪里可以了解到更多 Fedora 的安全特性和状态?我如何报告安全 bug?

此类信息请参阅 Security 页面。

我遇到了一个问题,我认为可能是硬件问题。我应该看哪里?

在报告可能是已知硬件问题的 bug 之前请查看 HardwareProblems 页面。

我在哪里请求 Fedora 中软件包的新版本?

http://bugzilla.redhat.com 针对您想要获得更新的那个软件包提交一个请求。提供更多有关您为何想要所需更新的细节信息会对软件包维护人员很有用。

我的问题不在这个列表上。我还能去哪里找到帮助?

请参阅本页面底部的 Fedora 资源

我可以捐助 Fedora 项目吗?

是的,您可以通过为 Fedora 或者更广泛地为自由和开源软件作出贡献来捐献您的时间给 Fedora 项目。您也可以捐献金钱,不过这需要多一点创造力!请参阅 Contribute 了解更多细节。

关于 Fedora

什么是 Fedora?

Fedora 是一个基于 Linux 的操作系统,它展示最新的自由和开源软件。Fedora 始终允许任何人自由使用、修改、以及重新发布。它由世界各地的人们打造而成,他们一起工作,形成一个社区:Fedora 项目。Fedora 项目是开放的,欢迎任何人加入。Fedora 项目为您打造,它名列前茅,引领自由开放的软件与内容不断前进。

另请参阅 Overview 页面。

Fedora 目标是什么?

Why a project instead of a product?

A global steering committee at Red Hat decided that Red Hat Linux was suffering from too many compromises as a retail product, and that the company should redirect efforts toward creating a community-based project. Rather than being subject to retail product delivery schedules, Fedora is released on schedules set by a decision-making process that is open, and influenced by the community.

What are the primary benefits of this change?

Changing the product to a project will:

  • Ensure that users can get the latest bits as quickly as possible.
  • Create new opportunities for developers and users to participate in The Fedora Project development by opening up the full development process for anyone to see and join if they'd like.
  • Allow us to use The Fedora Project to develop and mature the latest, greatest technologies.
  • Speed up the development process, taking better advantage of the inherent strengths of the open source model.

Will Red Hat provide formal technical support for The Fedora Project?

No, no formal Web or phone support for The Fedora Project will be available from Red Hat. Red Hat's supported product line will be based in part on a recent release of Fedora, and our development will be done externally as part of The Fedora Project as much as possible.

How will The Fedora Project be made available to the public?

Fedora releases will be available as ISO images for both CDs and DVDs, and will also be available through other channels such as third-party online sales of physical media; distribution at Linux User Groups, included in magazines and in books, and maybe even handed out at trade shows. The bits may be actively pushed into content sharing networks such as BitTorrent. (Not all mechanisms will be used for each release, except that ISOs will be freely available for each release.)

Will Fedora be sold in retail?

Fedora will not be sold through the retail channel as a shrinkwrapped box. There is no list price for Fedora. The rapid development pace we expect for Fedora doesn't suit retail distribution — it is a lot of work to get a box product in and out of the channel, and retail isn't set up to efficiently handle software that is updated as often as every six months. Also, the creation of packaging and other materials that are necessary for retail significantly slows down the time to market, which means that users can't get the freshest bits when they are still truly fresh. Further information on Red Hat's retail product line is available at the Red Hat website.

What is the difference between "Fedora distribution", "The Fedora Project", and "Fedora"?

The Fedora Project is a collection of sub-projects. The Fedora distribution is the central project, which aims to provide a platform with the best in free and open source software. Fedora generally refers to the Fedora Project as a whole, and is sometimes used to refer to Fedora or a system running a collection of software from the Fedora Project.

我应当如何与 Fedora 的子项目的成员进行交流?

请首先尝试邮件列表。这是获得项目成员的帮助的最好方式。您可以在 Communicate 获得不同项目组的信息。

Fedora Project 是如何组织管理的?

管理 Fedora Project 的 董事会 由社区成员和红帽的雇员组成。红帽公司提供了包括资金、服务器、决策、技术与市场推广等多方面的支持。

Fedora Project 包含了许多子 项目。他们的共同努力提供了服务平台于支持社区。这些子项目彼此独立,但为了共同的愿景而团结一致。

每个子项目的发展都由一个 Steering Committee 来组织领导。Fedora Project 采用 精英政治 来进行管理,每个人的责任与权力取决于他的能力和付出。那些表现出了自己的能力与意愿的人将被选拔出来,领导 Fedora Project.

What kind of project management method does each Fedora sub-project use?

Each project has either leads or a Steering Committee to guide it. Individual contributors are given a great deal of freedom to work on whatever they choose, but they are asked to follow the guidance from the project's committee for processes and approval for new initiatives.

Like other responsibilities in the Fedora Project, committee membership is based largely upon merit, but all voices are welcome, and new ideas and opinions will be given due attention. Innovating and leading new ideas is a great way to earn recognition within the community.

Contributors can join committee members in regular IRC meetings. The meetings are open, and minutes are made publicly available and usually posted to the appropriate mailing list. Raw IRC logs are also sometimes available.

Most sub-projects keep a schedule of tasks on this wiki. Check the Projects page for links to individual sub-project pages. From those individual pages, you can find all of the available information for that project.

Does the Fedora Project assign tasks to contributors, or do the contributors decide what to do?

Interested volunteers are encouraged to take up the tasks they would like to contribute towards. You can avoid redundant tasks by posting to the relevant project list and coordinating with other interested community members. If you're not sure where you want to contribute, see the join page for different areas that can use your help. The Fedora Mentors project can guide you if you need further help.

Is there a partnership program between schools or non-profits and Fedora?

Not at present. If you have any ideas or suggestions to create such a program, please bring it to the attention of Fedora Marketing . Interested schools and non-profits are welcome to join us for discussions.

Is there a partnership program between LUGs and Fedora?

We attempt to work with Linux User Groups in whatever ways we can. Our list of LUG contacts is on our LinuxUserGroups page. If you would like to represent your LUG, please add your LUG to that list. We also encourage our Ambassadors to engage their local LUGs.

Can schools and non-profits reference the "Fedora Project" name and other Fedora marks if they are interacting with the Fedora community?

Yes, as long as they make it clear whether or not they are representing the Project. If they would like to represent the Project, they can approach and coordinate with the Fedora Marketing team. This and other uses of Fedora marks are subject to the terms of the Trademark Guidelines .

Is there a certification program for third-party applications running on Fedora?

No. The Fedora Project is dedicated to providing the best in free and open source software. Fedora leads in open solutions, and is developed with a rapid release cycle. Fedora Package Collection allows a vast array of additional Free and open source solutions to be contributed by the community and maintained for Fedora. Beyond these projects, the Fedora Project does not certify any third-party applications.

Formal ISV certification is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which shares many of Fedora's features, but is provided on a longer release cycle and is commercially supported for 7 years.


Is there a certification program for hardware that works with Fedora?

Fedora runs on a large variety of hardware, and the list of working hardware is constantly growing larger. Because Fedora improvements occur very rapidly and consistently, including hardware support, a Hardware Compatibility List was deemed too time-consuming and not worthwhile. Alternative methods of tracking working hardware have been suggested, but the consensus is that manually maintaining a complete list is unfeasible.

We are collecting hardware information directly from the users anonymously in a opt-in method, through the smolt project. We are always trying to find ways to improve Fedora's hardware support, and welcome constructive feedback.

A compatibility list is maintained for Red Hat Enterprise Linux at http://bugzilla.redhat.com/hcl. It will closely parallel Fedora's compatibility.

Is the Fedora Project independent of Red Hat, Inc.?

The Fedora Project is a community project, separate from Red Hat, but Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project and provides a great deal of valuable management and resources to the Fedora Project. Red Hat uses the material that the Fedora Project produces to develop its enterprise platform offerings. Red Hat has a strong interest in Fedora, and the success of the Fedora Project has been thanks to the great contributions of Red Hat.

What is the difference between Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ?

Fedora has the latest and greatest software and new releases every six months. Fedora is the upstream of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Red Hat Enterprise Linux has a conservative release and update cycle and is commercially supported by Red Hat.

Refer to Red Hat Enterprise Linux for more details.

What happened to 'Fedora Core?'

Fedora Project originally had two repositories, Fedora Core and Fedora Extras. Packages in Fedora Core repository was maintained by Red Hat developers and was part of official Fedora media and Fedora Extras was a add-on online repository open to volunteers. As the community around Fedora project grew, technical advantages (packaging guidelines, package review process in Fedora Extras) and limitations (packages in Fedora Core cannot depend on Fedora Extras but only vice versa, Fedora Extras packages were not included in official media) and other non technical advantages (Red Hat developers and community volunteers can work together in a team, no perception of any repository being treated as second class etc) led to a merge of Fedora Core and Fedora Extras into a single repository just before the release of Fedora 7. Since the repositories have merged, Fedora Core is no more. The releases are simply called Fedora.

Why does the tag in my packages say "fc"?

"fc" used to denote "Fedora Core. However after the Fedora 7 release, it has been retroactively renamed to "Fedora Collection" along the lines of GCC which is now "GNU Compiler Collection". From the perspective of version comparisons in RPM, it was easier to adopt a new meaning for c rather than dropping it simply because it refers to the old Core appellation.

Why should I help?

Your name in lights, an online CV, and maybe a trip to a FUDCon.

First, contribute to Fedora and you may get your name in the distribution. Hey, fair is fair.

Second, if you're a Fedora contributor, you don't need a fancy resume; you can just tell potential employers to 'Google' your name.

Third, top Fedora contributors can receive travel stipends to attend the Fedora Users and Developers Conference nearest them. You will have the opportunity to meet some of the giants of the open source movement in person, as their peers and equals.

And last, you'd be playing with this stuff anyway. Spend your time doing stuff that you will enjoy and that others will use. What more incentive do you need? Join us.

我有兴趣为 Fedora 做贡献,我可以从哪开始?

请参阅我们的加入页面以了解哪里需要帮助以及如何开始。您可能对我们的导师计划也感兴趣。

针对 Fedora 贡献人员

哪些新项目的点子最受大家欢迎?

请移步 FedoraBounties

How can I package software for Fedora users? Where can I find information for contributing to Fedora Package Collection?

The Package Maintainers category will point you to all kinds of help.

Where can I find information for contributing to the Fedora Documentation Project?

Some good links for help can be found on the DocsProject page.

哪里还可以找到答案?