Getting started with virtualization/es

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Usando virtualizacion en Fedora

Fedora usa la familia de herramientas de libvirt como su solucion de virtualizacion. Por defecto libvirt en Fedora usara Qemu para ejecutar las instancias huespedes.

Para informacion sobre otras plataformas de virtualizacion, visitar http://virt.kernelnewbies.org/TechComparison.

Qemu puede emular un sistema anfitrion mediante software, o con una CPU con soporte hardware (ver mas abajo) puede usar KVM para proveer una virutalizacion completa y rapida.

Otros productos de virtualizacion estan disponibles pero no estan cubiertos en esta guia.

Instalando y configurando Fedora para huespedes virtualizados

Esta seccion comprende la configuracion inicial de libvirt en tu sistema. Despues de completar satisfactoriamente esta seccion seraz capaz de crear sistemas operativos huespedes virtualizados.

Requerimientos del sistema

Los requerimientos del sistema habituales para Fedora son:

  • Al menos 600MB de espacio en disco por huesped. Un sistema fedora minimo, solo con linea de comandos, necesita 600MB de almacenamiento. Una instalacion estandard de Fedora con escritorio requiere al menos 3GB de espacio.
  • Al menos 256MB de RAM por huesped mas 256MB para el SO base. Al menos 756MB son recomendados para cada huesped que use un sistema operativo moderno. Una buena regla practica es pensar en cuanta memoria requeriria normalmente el sistema operativo y reservar esa cantidad para el huesped virtualizado.

KVM requiere una CPU con extensiones de virtualizacion, estas se pueden encontrar en la mayoria de las CPUs fabricadas en los ultimos anyos. Estas extensiones se denominan Intel VT o AMD-V. Para comprobar si tienes el soporte CPU adecuado, ejecuta el siguiente comando:

$ egrep '^flags.*(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo 

Si NADA aparece por pantalla, tu sistema no soporta las extensiones relevantes. Todavia puedes usar QEMU/KVM, pero el emulador usara solo virtualizacion por software, lo cual es MUCHO MUCHO mas lento.

Instalando el software de virtualizacion

Cuando instalamos Fedora, el software de virtualizacion puede ser instalado seleccionando Virtualizacion dentro de la opcion de Sistemas Base en el instalador.

Para instalaciones de Fedora existentes, QEMU, KVM, y otras herramientas de virtualizacion puede ser instaladas ejecutando el siguiente comando el cual instala el grupo de virtualizacion:

su -c "yum install @virtualization"

Esto instalara qemu-kvm, python-virtinst, qemu, virt-manager, virt-viewer y todas las dependencias necesarias.

Por defecto, el servicio libvirtd se iniciara cada vez que el anfitrion se inicie, pero necesita ser iniciado manualmente despues de instalar el grupo mencionado anteriormente:

su -c "service libvirtd start"

Verifique que los modulos kvm del kernel se han cargado correctamente:

$ lsmod | grep kvm
kvm
kvm_intel

Si el comando no listo kvm_intel o kvm_amd, KVM no esta correctamente configurado. Revise Ensuring system is KVM capable para consejos sobre la resolucion de problemas.

Configuracion de la red

Por defecto libvirt creara una red privada para nuestros huespedes en la maquina anfitrion. Esta red privada usara una subred 192.168.x.x y no ser directamente alcanzable desde la red en que la maquina anfitrion se encuentra, pero los huespedes virtuales pueden usar la maquina anfitrion como puerta de enlace y pueden conectar al exterior a traves de ella. Si necesita proveer serviciones en sus anfitriones que sean alcanzables a traves de otras maquinas en la red del anfitrion puede usar reglas DNAT de iptables para el reenvio de puertos especificos, o puede configurar un entorno Bridged.

Vea libvirt networking setup page para mas informacion en como configurar una red Bridged.

Creando un huesped Fedora

The installation of Fedora guests using anaconda is supported. The installation can be started on the command line via the virt-install program or in the GUI program virt-manager.

Creando un huesped con virt-install

virt-install is a command line based tool for creating virtualized guests. To start the interactive install process, run the virt-install command with the --prompt parameter.

su -c "/usr/sbin/virt-install --prompt"

The following questions for the new guest will be presented.

  1. What is the name of your virtual machine? This is the label that will identify the guest OS. This label is used with virsh commands and virt-manager(Virtual Machine Manager).
  2. How much RAM should be allocated (in megabytes)? This is the amount of RAM to be allocated for the guest instance in megabytes (eg, 256). Note that installation with less than 256 megabytes is not recommended.
  3. What would you like to use as the disk (path)? The local path and file name of the file to serve as the disk image for the guest (eg, /var/lib/libvirt/images/name.img). This will be exported as a full disk to your guest. It's best to specify the default /var/lib/libvirt/images/ directory.
  4. How large would you like the disk to be (in gigabytes)? The size of the virtual disk for the guest (only appears if the file specified above does not already exist). 4.0 gigabytes is a reasonable size for a "default" install
  5. What is the install CD-ROM/ISO or URL? This is the path to a Fedora installation tree in the format used by anaconda. NFS, FTP, and HTTP locations are all supported. Examples include:
    • nfs:my.nfs.server.com:/path/to/test2/tree/
    • http://my.http.server.com/path/to/tree/
    • ftp://my.ftp.server.com/path/to/tree


These options can be passed as command line options, execute virt-install --help for details.

virt-install can use kickstart files, for example virt-install -x ks=kickstart-file-name.ks.

If graphics were enabled, a VNC window will open and present the graphical installer. If graphics were not enabled, a text installer will appear. Proceed with the fedora installation.

Creando un huesped con virt-manager

Start the GUI Virtual Machine Manager by selecting it from the "Applications-->System Tools" menu, or by running the following command:

su -c "virt-manager"

If you encounter an error along the lines of "Failed to contact configuration server; some possible causes are that you need to enable TCP/IP networking for ORBit, or you have stale NFS locks due to a system crash", trying running virt-manager not as root (without the su -c). The GUI will prompt for the root password.


  1. Open a connection to a hypervisor by choosing File-->Add connection...
  2. Choose "qemu" for KVM, or "Xen" for Xen.
  3. Choose "local" or select a method to connect to a remote hypervisor
  4. After a connection is opened, click the new icon next to the hypervisor, or right click on the active hypervisor and select "New" (Note - the new icon is going to be improved to make it easier to see)
  5. A wizard will present the same questions as appear with the virt-install command-line utility (see descriptions above). The wizard assumes that a graphical installation is desired and does not prompt for this option.
  6. On the last page of the wizard there is a "Finish" button. When this is clicked, the guest OS is provisioned. After a few moments a VNC window should appear. Proceed with the installation as normal.

Gestion remota

The following remote management options are available:

  • (easiest) If using non-root users via SSH, then setup instructions are at: http://wiki.libvirt.org/page/SSHSetup
  • If using root for access via SSH, then create SSH keys for root, and use ssh-agent and ssh-add before launching virt-manager.
  • To use TLS, set up a local certificate authority and issue x509 certs to all servers and clients. For information on configuring this option, refer to http://wiki.libvirt.org/page/TLSSetup.

Administracion de sistemas huespedes

When the installation of the guest operating system is complete, it can be managed using the GUI virt-manager program or on the command line using virsh.

Gestionando huespedes con virt-manager

Start the Virtual Machine Manager. Virtual Machine Manager is in the "Applications-->System Tools" menu, or execute:

su -c "virt-manager"

{1} If you are not root, you will be prompted to enter the root password. ChooseRun unprivileged to operate in a read-only non-root mode.

  • Choose the host you wish to manage and click "Connect" in the "Open Connection" dialog window.
  • The list of virtual machines is displayed in the main window. Guests that are running will display a ">" icon. Guests that are not running will be greyed out.
  • To manage a particular guest, double click on it, or right click and select "Open".
  • A new window for the guest will open that will allow you to use its console, see information about its virtual hardware and start/stop/pause it.

For further information about virt-manager consult the project website

Bugs in the virt-manager tool should be reported in BugZilla against the 'virt-manager' component

Gestionando huespedes con virsh

The virsh command line utility that allows you to manage virtual machines. Guests can be managed on the command line with the virsh utility. The virsh utility is built around the libvirt management APIl:

  • virsh has a stable set of commands whose syntax and semantics are preserved across updates to the underlying virtualization platform.
  • virsh can be used as an unprivileged user for read-only operations (e.g. listing domains, listing domain statistics).
  • virsh can manage domains running under Xen, Qemu/KVM, esx or other backends with no perceptible difference to the user
Note.png
A valid URI may be passed to virsh with "-c' to connect to a remote libvirtd instance. For details, see http://libvirt.org/uri.html

To start a virtual machine:

su -c "virsh create <name of virtual machine>"

To list the virtual machines currently running:

su -c "virsh list"

To list all virtual machines, running or not:

su -c "virsh list --all"

To gracefully power off a guest:

su -c "virsh shutdown <virtual machine (name | id | uuid)>"

To non gracefully power off a guest:

su -c "virsh destroy <virtual machine (name | id | uuid)>"

To save a snapshot of the machine to a file:

su -c "virsh save <virtual machine (name | id | uuid)> <filename>"

To restore a previously saved snapshot:

su -c "virsh restore <filename>"

To export the configuration file of a virtual machine:

su -c "virsh dumpxml <virtual machine (name | id | uuid)"

For a complete list of commands available for use with virsh:

su -c "virsh help"

Or consult the manual page: man 1 virsh

Bugs in the virsh tool should be reported in BugZilla against the 'libvirt' component.

Otras opciones de virtualizacion

QEMU/KVM sin Libvirt

QEMU/KVM can be invoked directly without libvirt, however you won't be able to use tools such as virt-manager, virt-install, or virsh. Plain QEMU (without KVM) can also virtualize other processor architectures like ARM or PowerPC. See How to use qemu

Xen

Fedora can run as a Xen Guest OS, but using Fedora as a Xen Host is currently not supported. There is an experimental repo available at http://myoung.fedorapeople.org/dom0

Resolucion de problemas, informar sobre bugs, y problemas conocides

For a list of known unresolved issues, as well as troubleshooting tips, please see How to debug virtualization problems