Git quick reference
Configure your global git settings
Running these commands will setup your global git settings. You should obviously use your own contact details.
git config --global user.name "John Q. Public" git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" git config --global color.ui auto
Should you wish to change your details later on, you can manually edit the
~/.gitconfig file for global settings, or edit
.git/config to change settings on a particular repo. Alternatively, you can simply run the above commands again with new details.
git config documentation for many more configuration options.
Display current branch in bash
If you work with branches, and you should, this setting helps you keep track of which branch you are in at a given time. If you are in a git working directory, it shows the current branch as part of the prompt:
[user@host directory-name (master)]$
To enable this, you can take advantage of the
__git_ps1 function, provided by
/usr/share/git-core/contrib/completion/git-prompt.sh in the git package. Add those lines to
export PS1='[\u@\h \W$(declare -F __git_ps1 &>/dev/null && __git_ps1 " (%s)")]\$ '
If you do not have the bash-completion package installed, you must manually source the git completion script prior to using
__git_ps1(). To do this, add to
source /usr/share/git-core/contrib/completion/git-prompt.shfor Fedora 18+
source /etc/bash_completion.d/gitfor RedHat/CentOS or Fedora 16-17
To activate bash configuration changes, run
In addition to displaying the current branch, this will show when you are in the middle of a merge or rebase.
You might also want to display when there are changes in your work tree or the git index:
[user@host directory-name (master*)]$ [user@host directory-name (master+)]$ [user@host directory-name (master%)]$
- On the first line, a tracked file was modified
- On the second line, a tracked file was modified and staged (with
- On the third line, you have untracked files in your tree
Of course, those can combine themselves...
To do so, simply add these lines in your
~/.bashrc, right before the line modifying your prompt:
export GIT_PS1_SHOWDIRTYSTATE=true export GIT_PS1_SHOWUNTRACKEDFILES=true
See the comments at the beginning of
/etc/bash_completion.d/git for more details.
Initialize a new repo
mkdir repo && cd repo && git init
Once you've created a repo, you'll find a '.git' folder inside it. What you essentially have at this point is a bare repo -- a repository with the git configs, but no actual files contained in the repository. Now let's create a file and tell git that we want it to be part of our repo. From the repo directory (not the .git directory), type:
echo "Blah" > test.txt
git add test.txt
We can then commit the changes by typing:
git commit test.txt
Another way of committing all the changes (without having to specify all the files that have changed) is to type:
git commit -a
Either way, it will bring up whichever editor you have defined in $EDITOR and allow you to write a commit log message explaining the changes you've made. A commit log message usually consists of:
- a one-line summary of your changes
- a blank line
- one or more additional lines with more detail. These lines are optional.
You can always check the status of your current repo by typing
Create a new local branch
git checkout -b <branch>
Push and create a new remote branch from an existing local branch of the same name
git push origin <branch>
Switch to a branch that was pushed remotely
git branch -r
to determine the name of the upstream branch you want to work on. Then use this to switch to it:
git checkout --track origin/<branch>
This creates a local branch named
<branch> and tells git that it came from
git status will show you whether your local branch is ahead, behind, or otherwise different than the upstream branch.
If you want to use a different name for your local branch, you can use:
git checkout --track --branch <some-other-name> origin/<branch>
Remove a remote branch
Assuming you had a branch named blah on the remote server, you could remove it by typing:
git push origin :blah
Apply mailed git patch
git am <file>