Networking features are nowadays important for virtually all users of Fedora and other linux distributions. Fedora's main network use cases are laptops, desktops, servers and virtualization. Fedora could also be used for routers, becoming part of networking infrastructure.
Networking concepts and configuration
- Bonding / Teaming
- TCP, UDP and ICMP NAT
- Traffic control
- Name Resolution
- Network connectivity dependencies
Most prominent projects involved in linux networking
- ISC DHCP
Notable networking problems
Only platform bugs that can influence various application and/or the overall behavior of the system belong here.
- Ethernet: noarp causes dst MAC to be the same as src MAC instead of broadcast
- Bridge: Adding first interface after setting MAC address changes the MAC address
- Dualstack: Kernel removes ::1 but not 127.0.0.1 when setting lo down
- IPv4: Kernel can't store DHCP lifetime and cannot mark IPv6 addresses dynamic (in the DHCP sense)
- IPv6: Kernel ignores RA router preference
- IPv6: Tempaddr cycling breaks TCP connections prematurely
- IPv6: Kernel doesn't cache RDNSS and DNSSL
- IPv6: Kernel doesn't provide default route information when defrtr is disabled
- IPv6: Kernel doesn't provide prefix route information when pinfo is disabled
- Netlink: Kernel doesn't solve race condition between rtnl commands and events
- Netlink: Kernel doesn't send link change notifications for devices that are down
- rtnl_link_bond_add() succeeds when device already exists
- rtnl_link_bridge_add() and rtnl_link_vlan_add missing
- iproute won't distinguish bridges and bonds
- iproute won't show vlan id
- IPv4: getaddrinfo(127.0.0.1, AI_ADDRCONFIG) fails on hosts without global IPv4 (e.g. notebooks not connected to any networks)
- IPv6: getaddrinfo(::1, AI_ADDRCONFIG) fails on hosts without any other IPv6 address
- IPv6: getaddrinfo(link-local-address, AI_ADDRCONFIG) fails on hosts without global IPv6 (hopefully solved)
- IPv6: GLIBC's nsswitch doesn't support overriding
getaddrinfowhich is requred to resolve link-local IPv6 addresses
getaddrinfodoesn't support SRV records
dhclientfails with large values of dhcp-renawal-time, notably the infinity (0xffffffff) value
- People say that dhclient exchange is slow, especially on wireless (I can't reproduce)
- Avahi's nss-mdns returns link-local IPv6 addresses without scope_id and applications fail to connect
- Avahi's IPv6 support is disabled by default (this has been resolved in the past)
- Various bugs in NetworkManager
- ping doesn't support IPv6 (you have to use ping6)
- netstat and ss won't mark non-v6only sockets
- Assume that
getaddrinfo()returns only one address and/or that such the first returned address works. See Networking/NameResolution.
- RFC 6106 (RA DNS): Relies on a false assuption that every (even multicast) IP packet is delivered to its destination.
- RFC 4861 (NDP): Doesn't specify how zero lifetimes should be used and lets implementations rely on the same false assumption.
- RFC 3493 (socket interfce): Breaks both IPv4 and IPv6 localhost and link-local networking depending on available global addresses.
- POSIX.1-2008: Defines the AI_ADDRCONFIG in a bad way
Peaces of the puzzle
- Interface for static IPv4 and IPv6 configuration (kernel)
- Interface for bridging/bonding/vlan configuration (kernel)
- Interface for DNS configuration (/etc/resolv.conf)
- DHCP client implementation for IPv4 automatic configuration (dhclient)
- RA client implementation for IPv6 address configuration (kernel, with workarounds in NetworkManager)
- RDNSS/DNSSL client implementation for IPv6 DNS configuration (NetworkManager through kernel, with workarounds)
- DHCP client implementation for IPv6 address/DNS/other configuration (dhclient)
- IPsec, VPN and tunneling implementations (various daemons)
- A network management daemon to properly manage all of the above together with user configuration (NetworkManager)
- Networking API for applications (glibc, with many problems)
I may have missed something but the objective is to show that networking is rather complex and the various tools need to be centrally managed by a network management service in order to make users and administrators happy.
You can only live without network configuration daemons if you use static IP configuration and you avoid encrypted wireless networks at the same time. You can live with just wpa_supplicant and dhclient only if you are used to do most of the stuff yourself. Virtually all linux distributions now converge to network solutions based on network configuration daemons.
Examples of such daemons (without feature comparison):
- connman (MeeGo)
- netifd (OpenWRT)
- netcfg (Archlinux)
Yeah, it's a lot of fun writing new and new network configuration daemons.
Features to be proposed at some point of time
Name: Pavel Šimerda Email: email@example.com IRC: pavlix, #nm at freenode
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