Upgrading Fedora using package manager

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{{autolang|base=yes}}
 
{{autolang|base=yes}}
  
This page contains information explaining how to upgrade Fedora using {{command|yum}}.
+
{{admon/warning| This page is refers to unofficial method of upgrading.  Refer to [[Upgrading]] page on the current official methods to upgrade Fedora.}}
  
== Upgrading Fedora using yum directly ==
+
This page contains information explaining how to upgrade Fedora online using {{command|dnf}} (without the DNF system upgrade plugin).
  
{{admon/warning| Upgrading using the yum method described here is not recommended for new users.  Use FedUp instead |
+
== Upgrading Fedora using dnf directly ==
  
For upgrades to Fedora 18 and later, the recommended upgrade method is the [[FedUp]] tool. [[FedUp#How_Can_I_Upgrade_My_System_with_FedUp?|This section]] has instructions on using FedUp to upgrade.
+
== Participate ==
  
For upgrades to Fedora 17 and earlier, the recommended installation method is with a boot media with the Anaconda installer as detailed in the [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/ Installation Guide] or via [[PreUpgrade]]. [[PreUpgrade]] is a slightly different upgrade method where all the packages are downloaded before the system is rebooted into the Anaconda installer.
+
If you are upgrading using [[Dnf]] and it shows any general dependency issues, please file them in [http://bugzilla.redhat.com Bugzilla]. But please read this page, all references pages and search the mailing list archives before filing bugs. And of course, please help keep this page updated.
  
Although upgrades with yum do work, they are not explicitly tested as part of the release process by the [[QA|Fedora QA]] and are not documented in the [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/{{FedoraVersion}}/html/Installation_Guide/index.html Fedora installation guide].  If you are not prepared to resolve issues on your own if things break, you should probably use the recommended installation methods instead.}}
+
If you want to help make live upgrades work smoothly, join the [[SIGs/LiveUpgrade | Live Upgrade Special Interest Group]].
  
When upgrading with yum you don't get any help from FedUp or Anaconda, but with a typical system it might be able to upgrade systems remotely over ssh and with limited downtime. (You will still need to reboot to get the new kernel and system libraries/services running).
+
== Upgrading across multiple releases ==
  
A live upgrade with yum usually works well with a typical installation and when following the advice below.
+
If you need to upgrade across several releases, it is generally recommended to go one release at a time: for example, rather than going directly from {{FedoraVersion|long|previous}} to {{FedoraVersion|long|next}}, first go to {{FedoraVersion|long}} and then from there to {{FedoraVersion|long|next}}. This tends to reduce the number of package dependency issues you may encounter. If you are upgrading from an [[End of life]] release, please also see [[#eol|the end-of-life section]].
 
+
== Participate ==
+
 
+
If you are upgrading using Yum and it shows any general dependency issues, please file them in http://bugzilla.redhat.com. But please read this page, all references pages and search the mailing list archives before filing bugs. And of course, please help keep this page updated.
+
 
+
If you want to help make live upgrades work smoothly, join the [[SIGs/LiveUpgrade | Live Upgrade Special Interest Group]].
+
  
== Instructions to upgrade using yum ==
+
== Instructions to upgrade using dnf ==
  
 
=== 1.  Backup your system ===
 
=== 1.  Backup your system ===
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=== 2. Read about common problems ===
 
=== 2. Read about common problems ===
  
Further down in this page there is a list of common problems specific to yum upgrades for specific versions. Some of them require attention before the upgrade.
+
Further down in this page there is a list of common problems specific to dnf upgrades for specific versions. Some of them require attention before the upgrade.
  
 
General advice on upgrading Fedora can be found on the [[Upgrading]] page. You should also read the [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/ Installation Guide] and [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/release-notes/ Release Notes] for the version you plan to upgrade to - they contain important information regarding upgrading issues. Finally, check the list of [[Common bugs]].
 
General advice on upgrading Fedora can be found on the [[Upgrading]] page. You should also read the [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/ Installation Guide] and [http://docs.fedoraproject.org/release-notes/ Release Notes] for the version you plan to upgrade to - they contain important information regarding upgrading issues. Finally, check the list of [[Common bugs]].
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Review and remove all .rpmsave and .rpmnew files before and after upgrading. (And if you have selinux enabled then remember to check security context if you move config files around.)
 
Review and remove all .rpmsave and .rpmnew files before and after upgrading. (And if you have selinux enabled then remember to check security context if you move config files around.)
  
{{admon/tip|Find unused config files|Merge and resolve the changes found by the following script: <code>yum install rpmconf; rpmconf -a</code>
+
{{admon/tip|Find unused config files|Merge and resolve the changes found by the following script: <code>dnf install rpmconf; rpmconf -a</code>
Now find and remove old config which nobody owns: <code>find /etc /var -name '*?.rpm?*'</code>}}
+
Now find and remove old config which nobody owns: <code>rpmconf -c</code>}}
  
 
Now is a good time to remove packages you don't use - especially non-standard packages.
 
Now is a good time to remove packages you don't use - especially non-standard packages.
  
{{admon/tip|Find and review "unused" packages| You can find packages not required by other packages with the tool <code>package-cleanup</code> from the <code>yum-utils</code> package: <code>yum install yum-utils; package-cleanup --leaves</code>. These packages could be candidates for removal, but check to see whether you use them directly or if they are used by applications not backed by rpm packages. Remove them with <code>yum remove package-name-and-version</code>.<br/>
+
{{admon/tip|Find and review "unused" packages| You can find packages not required by other packages with the tool <code>package-cleanup</code> from the <code>yum-utils</code> package: <code>dnf install yum-utils; package-cleanup --leaves</code>. These packages could be candidates for removal, but check to see whether you use them directly or if they are used by applications not backed by rpm packages. Remove them with <code>dnf remove package-name-and-version</code>.<br/>
Another useful tool for cleaning up unused packages is <code>rpmreaper</code>.  It's an ncurses application that lets you view rpm dependency graph and mark packages for deletion.  Marking one package can make other packages leaf, which you can see immediately, so you don't have to run the tool several times to get rid of whole sub-tree of unused packages.  Install with: <code>yum install rpmreaper</code>.
+
Another useful tool for cleaning up unused packages is <code>rpmreaper</code>.  It's an ncurses application that lets you view rpm dependency graph and mark packages for deletion.  Marking one package can make other packages leaf, which you can see immediately, so you don't have to run the tool several times to get rid of whole sub-tree of unused packages.  Install with: <code>dnf install rpmreaper</code>.
 
}}
 
}}
  
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If you have 3rd party repositories configured, you may need to adjust them for the new Fedora version. If you switch from one Fedora release to another there is often nothing that needs to be done.  If you switch to Rawhide from a standard Fedora release (or vice versa) then most of the time you will need to install the Rawhide release RPMs from the 3rd party repository as well (or the standard ones, if switching back).
 
If you have 3rd party repositories configured, you may need to adjust them for the new Fedora version. If you switch from one Fedora release to another there is often nothing that needs to be done.  If you switch to Rawhide from a standard Fedora release (or vice versa) then most of the time you will need to install the Rawhide release RPMs from the 3rd party repository as well (or the standard ones, if switching back).
  
Note that the upgrade is likely to fail if there are outdated dependencies from packages not backed by a yum repository or backed by a repository which isn't ready for the new version.
+
Note that the upgrade is likely to fail if there are outdated dependencies from packages not backed by a dnf repository or backed by a repository which isn't ready for the new version.
  
 
It is a good idea to do the upgrade outside the graphical environment. Log out of your graphical desktop and then
 
It is a good idea to do the upgrade outside the graphical environment. Log out of your graphical desktop and then
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A small script named fedora-upgrade is available which aims to automate the process outlined below. To run it, do the following
 
A small script named fedora-upgrade is available which aims to automate the process outlined below. To run it, do the following
  
<pre> sudo yum install fedora-upgrade  
+
<pre>$ sudo dnf install fedora-upgrade  
sudo fedora-upgrade
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$ sudo fedora-upgrade
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 +
When performing upgrade via remote shell, it is good idea to use screen or tmux utility to be able to get back to running transaction in case your connection drops.
  
 
Alternatively, follow the manual steps:
 
Alternatively, follow the manual steps:
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(or)
 
(or)
  
log in as root, and go into runlevel 3
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log in as root, and go into multi-user.target
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
init 3
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systemctl isolate multi-user.target
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== Update yum to latest version available in your Fedora version ====
+
==== Fully update your current Fedora install ====
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum update yum
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# dnf upgrade
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
==== Install the new fedora gpg key for the version you are updating to ====
+
{{anchor|packagekey}}
 +
==== Install the package signing key for the release you are upgrading to ====
  
Keys you may find and verify  at
+
If you are upgrading across two releases or fewer from Fedora 20 or later, this step should be unnecessary. If you are upgrading from an older Fedora or upgrading across three or more releases, you may need to import the signing key for the target release.
  
https://fedoraproject.org/keys
+
You can find package signing keys for currently-supported releases [https://getfedora.org/keys/ here]. Keys for EOL releases can be found [https://getfedora.org/keys/obsolete.html here]. Click ''Primary'' (or ''Secondary'', if you are using a secondary architecture), and you will see ''Get it from: Fedora Project'', where ''Fedora Project'' is a link. Copy that URL, and run:
 
+
<pre>
or see a version specific update instructions at the bottom.
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# rpm --import (url)
 +
</pre>
 +
to install the key. On old releases, {{command|rpm}} may have trouble doing this; if that happens, download the file with {{command|curl -o}} or {{command|wget}} and import the downloaded file.
  
 
==== Clean the cache ====
 
==== Clean the cache ====
  
Then remove all traces of the version you are leaving from the yum cache in <code>/var/cache/yum</code>.
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Then remove all traces of the version you are leaving from the dnf cache in <code>/var/cache/dnf</code>.
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum clean all
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# dnf clean all
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 
==== Upgrade all packages ====
 
==== Upgrade all packages ====
  
{{admon/warning|Once a live upgrade is started, do not stop the upgrade by rebooting, killing the process, or by any other method until it is complete. Interrupting an upgrade will cause the affected system to be in a mixed state -- partially the old release and partially the new release.  In this state, the system will not be reliable and will not operate as expected.  You can try running yum distro-sync and package-cleanup --problems to try and fix the problems. }}
+
{{admon/warning|Never upgrade on battery power|Never run the upgrade operation on battery power! Always connect to the mains, if using a laptop. However, if your system does have a battery, it's a good idea to ensure it's charged and connected in case of a power outage during the upgrade.}}
 +
 
 +
{{admon/warning|Do not interrupt an upgrade for any reason|Once a live upgrade is started, do not stop the upgrade by rebooting, killing the process, or by any other method until it is complete. Interrupting an upgrade will cause the affected system to be in a mixed state -- partially the old release and partially the new release.  In this state, the system will not be reliable and will not operate as expected.  You can try running {{command|dnf distro-sync}} and {{command|package-cleanup --problems}} to try and fix the problems.}}
 +
 
 +
Run the upgrade command:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum --releasever=<release_number_you_want_to_sync_to> distro-sync
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# dnf --releasever=<target_release_number> --setopt=deltarpm=false distro-sync
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
{{admon/warning|If you experience any dependency problems, you are at your own and you have to solve them manually. If you are not able to, use preupgrade! Most often it is enough to remove several problematic package(s). Be sure to not remove half of your installation.
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{{admon/note|Dependency issues|If you experience any dependency problems, you have to solve them manually. These are often caused by packages being retired in the newer release, but not properly obsoleted. Often it is enough to remove several problematic package(s).
}}
+
  
'''Note:''' While it is recommended to upgrade to intermediate releases if upgrading from an older release (for example upgrading from Fedora 12 to 13, then 13 to 14), depending on what version you are upgrading from, this step may fail with an error about GPG keys being in the wrong format. To overcome this, you can add the "--nogpgcheck" switch to the above yum distro-sync command.
+
You may find that a package you care about depends on a package that must be removed for the upgrade to proceed. Usually you will be able to reinstall the important package once the upgrade is complete.
 +
 
 +
If it seems like you must remove a package with many dependencies, especially ones that look important, please be careful. If you are attempting to upgrade across multiple releases, try a smaller jump to see if that avoids the problem.
 +
 
 +
If you are at all unsure in any way, ask for help on a mailing list, forum or IRC before removing packages.}}
  
 
=== 5. Make sure Fedora is upgraded ===
 
=== 5. Make sure Fedora is upgraded ===
  
Distro-sync will usually take care of upgrades for the third party repositories you have enabled as well.  Confirm with <pre> yum repolist </pre>  after the upgrade process is over.  <code>yum</code> might complain about conflicts or requirements. That is probably because you have used non-standard repositories or installed non-standard packages manually. Try to guess which packages cause the problem (or at least is a part of the dependency chain) - uninstall them and try again. Remember to install the packages again if they are essential.   
+
Distro-sync will usually take care of upgrades for the third party repositories you have enabled as well.  Confirm with {{command|dnf repolist}} after the upgrade process is over.  <code>dnf</code> might complain about conflicts or requirements. That is probably because you have used non-standard repositories or installed non-standard packages manually. Try to guess which packages cause the problem (or at least is a part of the dependency chain) - uninstall them and try again. Remember to install the packages again if they are essential.   
  
 
Ensure that all (new) essential packages from the new version are installed with
 
Ensure that all (new) essential packages from the new version are installed with
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum groupupdate 'Minimal Install'
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# dnf groupupdate 'Minimal Install'
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
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<pre>
 
<pre>
yum grouplist
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# dnf grouplist
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
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<pre>
 
<pre>
yum groupupdate "GNOME Desktop" \
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# dnf groupupdate "GNOME Desktop" \
  "Development Tools" "Sound and Video" \
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    "Development Tools" "Sound and Video" \
  "Games and Entertainment" "Administration Tools" \
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    "Games and Entertainment" "Administration Tools" \
  "Office/Productivity" "System Tools"
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    "Office/Productivity" "System Tools"
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
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{{Anchor|bootloader}}
 
{{Anchor|bootloader}}
 
 
Before booting you should usually install the bootloader from your new grub by running
 
Before booting you should usually install the bootloader from your new grub by running
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/sbin/grub-install BOOTDEVICE
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/usr/sbin/grub2-install BOOTDEVICE
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
- where BOOTDEVICE is usually <code>/dev/sda</code> (If you get an error '/dev/sda does not have any corresponding BIOS drive' from that, then try <tt>/sbin/grub-install --recheck /dev/sda</tt>). For Fedora 16 and later, use <code>/sbin/grub2-install</code> instead of <code>/sbin/grub-install</code>. See [[#15-16|below]] first for important information about upgrading to Fedora 16 from prior releases.
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- where BOOTDEVICE is often {{code|/dev/sda}}, or {{code|/dev/vda}} for some virtual machine installs. If you have more than one hard disk, make sure you use the correct device!
 +
 
 +
If you get an error (e.g. {{code|/dev/sda does not have any corresponding BIOS drive}}) from that, then try {{command|/usr/sbin/grub2-install --recheck BOOTDEVICE}}).
  
Also, the order of init scripts could have changed from the previous version. A command to reset the order is:
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It might also be necessary to update the grub config file:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
cd /etc/rc.d/init.d; for f in *; do [ -x $f ] && /sbin/chkconfig $f resetpriorities; done
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cp --backup=numbered -a /boot/grub2/grub.cfg{,.bak} # create backup copy
 +
/usr/sbin/grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg # update config file
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Again, run <code>package-cleanup --orphans</code> to find packages that haven't been upgraded.
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=== 7. Cleanup your system ===
 +
Again, cleanup your system as described in section 2. Also you might want to remove some cache files that are no longer used, for example files from older Fedora releases in the following directories:
  
== Version specific notes ==
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* <nowiki>/var/cache/dnf</nowiki>
 +
* <nowiki>/var/cache/mock</nowiki>
 +
* <nowiki>/var/lib/mock</nowiki>
 +
 
 +
== Release specific notes ==
 +
 
 +
Note: the release-specific notes for [[End of life]] releases are on the [[Upgrading from EOL Fedora using package manager|EOL packager manager upgrade page]].
  
 
=== From pre-release ===
 
=== From pre-release ===
  
If you are upgrading to a final release from an alpha, beta, preview, or other [[Releases/Rawhide|Rawhide]] release, please see [[Upgrading from pre-release to final]].
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If you are upgrading to a final release from an Alpha, Beta, or release candidate, please see [[Upgrading from pre-release to final]].
  
 
{{Anchor|Rawhide}}
 
{{Anchor|Rawhide}}
=== To rawhide ===
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=== To Rawhide ===
 +
 
 +
{{admon/warning|Rawhide is unstable|Rawhide is the development branch of Fedora. It is meant to be used by developers and testers to provide feedback to the Fedora Project.}}
  
 
See the [[Releases/Rawhide|Rawhide]] release page for more information on Rawhide.  
 
See the [[Releases/Rawhide|Rawhide]] release page for more information on Rawhide.  
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum install fedora-release-rawhide
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# dnf upgrade
yum-config-manager --disable fedora updates updates-testing
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# dnf install dnf-plugins-core fedora-repos-rawhide
yum update yum
+
# dnf config-manager --set-disabled fedora updates updates-testing
yum --releasever=rawhide distro-sync --nogpgcheck
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# dnf config-manager --set-enabled rawhide
 +
# dnf clean -q dbcache packages metadata
 +
# dnf --releasever=rawhide --setopt=deltarpm=false distro-sync --nogpgcheck
 +
 
 +
## Optional: it is generally advised to do a selinux autorelabel and reboot
 +
# touch /.autorelabel
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
{{Anchor|18-19}}
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{{Anchor|24-25}}
=== Fedora 18 -> Fedora 19 ===
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{{Anchor|25}}
 
+
=== Fedora 25 ===
{{admon/warning|Incompatible systemd cgroups hierarchy layout|
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systemd in F19 lays out its cgroups hierarchy differently than in previous Fedora releases.
+
 
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The new hierarchy has some advantages, but it is incompatible with the old one. No live conversion of the hierarchy is performed during the package upgrade,
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so the upgraded systemd will not understand the previous state of the system correctly. This is known to affect the tracking of user sessions by systemd-logind ([[rhbug:962983|bug #962983]]).
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Expect breakage in active user sessions and make sure to reboot soon after performing the upgrade.}}
+
 
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Install the new Fedora 19 gpg key and upgrade:
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# rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/FB4B18E6.txt
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# yum update yum
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# yum --releasever=19 distro-sync
+
 
+
{{Anchor|17-18}}
+
 
+
=== Fedora 17 -> Fedora 18 ===
+
  
{{admon/note | Recommended Upgrade Method (Fedora 17 and newer)|Upgrading with FedUp is the recommended way to upgrade your system!Please check [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/FedUp#How_Can_I_Upgrade_My_System_with_FedUp.3F How Can I Upgrade My System with FedUp?]}}
+
No special instructions. Follow the above instructions.
  
 +
{{Anchor|23-24}}
 +
{{Anchor|24}}
 +
=== Fedora 24 ===
  
'''Note: One user has reported problems trying to upgrade an Intel Mac UEFI installation using this method, including the manual bootloader migration.''' [http://anee.me/dont-update-fedora-17-to-18-using-yum-on-macbook-pro/ Read more]
+
No special instructions. Follow the above instructions.
  
# Install the new Fedora 18 gpg key: {{command|su -c 'rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/DE7F38BD.txt'}}
+
{{anchor|eol}}
# If you are using SELinux in Enforcing mode, make sure your selinux-policy is up to date: {{command|su -c 'yum update selinux-policy'}}
+
=== Upgrading from legacy end of life (EOL) Fedora releases ===
# Upgrade all packages:
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## {{command|su -c 'yum update yum'}}
+
## {{command|su -c 'yum clean all'}}
+
## {{command|su -c 'yum --releasever<nowiki>=</nowiki>18 --disableplugin<nowiki>=</nowiki>presto distro-sync' }} '''It is recommended that updates be enabled for this step, for best results.'''
+
# Rebuild rpm database: {{command|su -c 'rpm --rebuilddb'}}, or rpm -qa will not work due to an upgrade of rpm
+
  
If you used an outdated <code>selinux-policy</code> package in Enforcing mode during the upgrade, you may notice errors in the yum output when several packages attempt to create users and/or groups, and after the upgrade you may have problems related to these packages, including issues with logging in via GDM (you may just see a spinning cursor) and/or performing actions requiring administrative privileges. This is a result of [[rhbug:844167|bug #844167]]. If you have this problem, you should re-install the affected packages with {{command|su -c 'yum reinstall (packagenames)'}}, and then reboot. Affected packages may include libvirt-daemon and polkit: {{command|su -c 'yum reinstall libvirt-daemon polkit'}}
+
Note that Fedora strongly recommends against ever running an end-of-life release on any production system, or any system connected to the public internet, in any circumstances. You should never allow a production Fedora deployment to reach end-of-life in the first place.
  
Due to [[Features/DisplayManagerRework]], the upgrade may leave you without a display manager enabled. To solve this problem, use {{command|su -c 'systemctl enable ''yourdm''.service'}}, replacing ''yourdm'' with the display manager you intend to use, e.g. <code>gdm</code> or <code>kdm</code>.
+
With that in mind, if you do have an end-of-life release installed on a system you cannot just discard or re-deploy, you can attempt to upgrade it, though this is a less-tested and less-supported operation.
  
=== Upgrading from legacy end of life (EOL) Fedoras ===
+
For detailed instructions on upgrades from EOL releases, please read [[Upgrading from EOL Fedora using package manager]].
{{admon/note|Yum upgrading from older versions|Upgrading from older versions of Fedora is archived here: [[Upgrading from EOL Fedora using yum]]}}
+
  
 
[[Category:FAQ]]
 
[[Category:FAQ]]
 
[[Category:How to]]
 
[[Category:How to]]
 
[[Category:Documentation]]
 
[[Category:Documentation]]

Latest revision as of 01:34, 2 November 2016

Warning.png
This page is refers to unofficial method of upgrading. Refer to Upgrading page on the current official methods to upgrade Fedora.

This page contains information explaining how to upgrade Fedora online using dnf (without the DNF system upgrade plugin).

Contents

[edit] Upgrading Fedora using dnf directly

[edit] Participate

If you are upgrading using Dnf and it shows any general dependency issues, please file them in Bugzilla. But please read this page, all references pages and search the mailing list archives before filing bugs. And of course, please help keep this page updated.

If you want to help make live upgrades work smoothly, join the Live Upgrade Special Interest Group.

[edit] Upgrading across multiple releases

If you need to upgrade across several releases, it is generally recommended to go one release at a time: for example, rather than going directly from Fedora 24 to Fedora 26, first go to Fedora 25 and then from there to Fedora 26. This tends to reduce the number of package dependency issues you may encounter. If you are upgrading from an End of life release, please also see the end-of-life section.

[edit] Instructions to upgrade using dnf

[edit] 1. Backup your system

Backup any personal data to an external hard drive or to another machine. If there is some unrecoverable error that requires a fresh install, you don't want to lose any data.

[edit] 2. Read about common problems

Further down in this page there is a list of common problems specific to dnf upgrades for specific versions. Some of them require attention before the upgrade.

General advice on upgrading Fedora can be found on the Upgrading page. You should also read the Installation Guide and Release Notes for the version you plan to upgrade to - they contain important information regarding upgrading issues. Finally, check the list of Common bugs.

[edit] 3. Clean Stuff

Review and remove all .rpmsave and .rpmnew files before and after upgrading. (And if you have selinux enabled then remember to check security context if you move config files around.)

Idea.png
Find unused config files
Merge and resolve the changes found by the following script: dnf install rpmconf; rpmconf -a Now find and remove old config which nobody owns: rpmconf -c

Now is a good time to remove packages you don't use - especially non-standard packages.

Idea.png
Find and review "unused" packages
You can find packages not required by other packages with the tool package-cleanup from the yum-utils package: dnf install yum-utils; package-cleanup --leaves. These packages could be candidates for removal, but check to see whether you use them directly or if they are used by applications not backed by rpm packages. Remove them with dnf remove package-name-and-version.
Another useful tool for cleaning up unused packages is rpmreaper. It's an ncurses application that lets you view rpm dependency graph and mark packages for deletion. Marking one package can make other packages leaf, which you can see immediately, so you don't have to run the tool several times to get rid of whole sub-tree of unused packages. Install with: dnf install rpmreaper.
Idea.png
Find and review "lost" packages
You can find orphaned packages (ie packages not in the repositories anymore) with: package-cleanup --orphans. This will also show packages which have been partially uninstalled but where the "%postun" script failed.

[edit] 4. Do the upgrade

If you have 3rd party repositories configured, you may need to adjust them for the new Fedora version. If you switch from one Fedora release to another there is often nothing that needs to be done. If you switch to Rawhide from a standard Fedora release (or vice versa) then most of the time you will need to install the Rawhide release RPMs from the 3rd party repository as well (or the standard ones, if switching back).

Note that the upgrade is likely to fail if there are outdated dependencies from packages not backed by a dnf repository or backed by a repository which isn't ready for the new version.

It is a good idea to do the upgrade outside the graphical environment. Log out of your graphical desktop and then

[edit] fedora-upgrade

A small script named fedora-upgrade is available which aims to automate the process outlined below. To run it, do the following

$ sudo dnf install fedora-upgrade 
$ sudo fedora-upgrade

When performing upgrade via remote shell, it is good idea to use screen or tmux utility to be able to get back to running transaction in case your connection drops.

Alternatively, follow the manual steps:

[edit] Go to a text console

ctrl + alt + F2

(or)

log in as root, and go into multi-user.target

systemctl isolate multi-user.target

[edit] Fully update your current Fedora install

# dnf upgrade

[edit] Install the package signing key for the release you are upgrading to

If you are upgrading across two releases or fewer from Fedora 20 or later, this step should be unnecessary. If you are upgrading from an older Fedora or upgrading across three or more releases, you may need to import the signing key for the target release.

You can find package signing keys for currently-supported releases here. Keys for EOL releases can be found here. Click Primary (or Secondary, if you are using a secondary architecture), and you will see Get it from: Fedora Project, where Fedora Project is a link. Copy that URL, and run:

 # rpm --import (url)

to install the key. On old releases, rpm may have trouble doing this; if that happens, download the file with curl -o or wget and import the downloaded file.

[edit] Clean the cache

Then remove all traces of the version you are leaving from the dnf cache in /var/cache/dnf.

# dnf clean all

[edit] Upgrade all packages

Warning.png
Never upgrade on battery power
Never run the upgrade operation on battery power! Always connect to the mains, if using a laptop. However, if your system does have a battery, it's a good idea to ensure it's charged and connected in case of a power outage during the upgrade.
Warning.png
Do not interrupt an upgrade for any reason
Once a live upgrade is started, do not stop the upgrade by rebooting, killing the process, or by any other method until it is complete. Interrupting an upgrade will cause the affected system to be in a mixed state -- partially the old release and partially the new release. In this state, the system will not be reliable and will not operate as expected. You can try running dnf distro-sync and package-cleanup --problems to try and fix the problems.

Run the upgrade command:

# dnf --releasever=<target_release_number> --setopt=deltarpm=false distro-sync
Note.png
Dependency issues
If you experience any dependency problems, you have to solve them manually. These are often caused by packages being retired in the newer release, but not properly obsoleted. Often it is enough to remove several problematic package(s).

You may find that a package you care about depends on a package that must be removed for the upgrade to proceed. Usually you will be able to reinstall the important package once the upgrade is complete.

If it seems like you must remove a package with many dependencies, especially ones that look important, please be careful. If you are attempting to upgrade across multiple releases, try a smaller jump to see if that avoids the problem.

If you are at all unsure in any way, ask for help on a mailing list, forum or IRC before removing packages.

[edit] 5. Make sure Fedora is upgraded

Distro-sync will usually take care of upgrades for the third party repositories you have enabled as well. Confirm with dnf repolist after the upgrade process is over. dnf might complain about conflicts or requirements. That is probably because you have used non-standard repositories or installed non-standard packages manually. Try to guess which packages cause the problem (or at least is a part of the dependency chain) - uninstall them and try again. Remember to install the packages again if they are essential.

Ensure that all (new) essential packages from the new version are installed with

# dnf groupupdate 'Minimal Install'

You might want to update other groups too, see

# dnf grouplist

For example

# dnf groupupdate "GNOME Desktop" \
    "Development Tools" "Sound and Video" \
    "Games and Entertainment" "Administration Tools" \
    "Office/Productivity" "System Tools"

[edit] 6. Preparing for reboot

Before booting you should usually install the bootloader from your new grub by running

/usr/sbin/grub2-install BOOTDEVICE

- where BOOTDEVICE is often /dev/sda, or /dev/vda for some virtual machine installs. If you have more than one hard disk, make sure you use the correct device!

If you get an error (e.g. /dev/sda does not have any corresponding BIOS drive) from that, then try /usr/sbin/grub2-install --recheck BOOTDEVICE).

It might also be necessary to update the grub config file:

cp --backup=numbered -a /boot/grub2/grub.cfg{,.bak} # create backup copy
/usr/sbin/grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg # update config file

[edit] 7. Cleanup your system

Again, cleanup your system as described in section 2. Also you might want to remove some cache files that are no longer used, for example files from older Fedora releases in the following directories:

  • /var/cache/dnf
  • /var/cache/mock
  • /var/lib/mock

[edit] Release specific notes

Note: the release-specific notes for End of life releases are on the EOL packager manager upgrade page.

[edit] From pre-release

If you are upgrading to a final release from an Alpha, Beta, or release candidate, please see Upgrading from pre-release to final.

[edit] To Rawhide

Warning.png
Rawhide is unstable
Rawhide is the development branch of Fedora. It is meant to be used by developers and testers to provide feedback to the Fedora Project.

See the Rawhide release page for more information on Rawhide.

# dnf upgrade
# dnf install dnf-plugins-core fedora-repos-rawhide
# dnf config-manager --set-disabled fedora updates updates-testing
# dnf config-manager --set-enabled rawhide
# dnf clean -q dbcache packages metadata
# dnf --releasever=rawhide --setopt=deltarpm=false distro-sync --nogpgcheck

## Optional: it is generally advised to do a selinux autorelabel and reboot
# touch /.autorelabel

[edit] Fedora 25

No special instructions. Follow the above instructions.

[edit] Fedora 24

No special instructions. Follow the above instructions.

[edit] Upgrading from legacy end of life (EOL) Fedora releases

Note that Fedora strongly recommends against ever running an end-of-life release on any production system, or any system connected to the public internet, in any circumstances. You should never allow a production Fedora deployment to reach end-of-life in the first place.

With that in mind, if you do have an end-of-life release installed on a system you cannot just discard or re-deploy, you can attempt to upgrade it, though this is a less-tested and less-supported operation.

For detailed instructions on upgrades from EOL releases, please read Upgrading from EOL Fedora using package manager.