User Guide - Accessing the Web

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Fedora uses Mozilla Firefox by default in Gnome and Konqueror in KDE to access the World Wide Web (Web). There are many other browsers available to suit different users' needs. Dillo is an example of a lightweight browser, and browsers such as lynx, w3m, and elinks are console based.

Besides being standards-compliant web browsers, Firefox and Konqueror have many features beyond basic web browsing. This chapter explains how to use some of the more popular features, and provides links to further information.

The internet can also be used to transfer files. This chapter covers different methods of doing this using graphical applications as well as the command line. If you wish to transfer files using email, then you should probably read the chapter on communications instead. This is often the best choice for smaller files such as pictures and documents.

Contents

Browing Webpages

Firefox and Konqueror are the suggested web browsers for most users. If you require a more lightweight browser (especially if you are using a slower system), you may want to try Dillo. If you are using the command line, then you may want to use lynx, w3m, or elinks. None of these programs are installed in Fedora by default, but can be installed using the instructions in the chapter on managing software.

Using Firefox

To start Firefox in GNOME, select Applications > Internet > Firefox Web Browser or use the menu panel icon. To start Firefox in KDE, select KMenu > Applications > Internet > Firefox Web Browser.

Docs Drafts DesktopUserGuide Web firefoxicon.png This is the default icon associated with Firefox.

Navigating The Web

Fedora starts Firefox with a default home page that has links to useful Fedora-related sites. Navigate to other web pages by typing the web address - also called the univeral resource locator, or URL - into the long navigation bar across the top of the Firefox screen, replacing "http://start.fedoraproject.org".

If the URL is not known, enter a keyword (or words) into the search bar to the right of the navigation bar, then press the [ENTER] key. The search engine used to perform your search can be changed by left-clicking the logo in the search box. You will be presented with a list of options including Google, Yahoo, eBay, Amazon, and Creative Commons.

Like other web browsers, Firefox makes it possible to save a web page for future reference by adding it to a list of bookmarks. Use the key combination [Ctrl] [d] to bookmark a page you are viewing. To manage bookmarks, use the Bookmark menu from the top of the Firefox window. You can also create a live bookmark (a feed) that automatically checks for updates from a page with an RSS or Atom feed. If a feed is available for a particular web page, there will be an orange icon at the right hand edge of the address bar while you are visiting that page. Left click the feed icon and a preview of the feed is displayed. Select the method you would like to use to subscribe to the feed.

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Use your favorite feed reader
Firefox can use a number of popular web-based options for subscribing to feeds, such as Bloglines, My Yahoo, and Google Reader, as well as Firefox's own live bookmarks. Another option is to use a desktop feed reader you have installed, such as Liferea.

Tabs

Open a new tab with [Ctrl] [t] . A blank page is presented and a new bar is available under the navigation bar showing all open tabs; to switch between them left-click the desired tab. To close a tab you can either right click to access the context menu or press the red "X" on the tab.

Navigating a large number of open tabs can be difficult. To make it easier, use the arrow icon on the right hand side of the tabs toolbar. Click this to reveal a list of all open tabs that you can switch to by clicking on the relevant item.

Extensions

Firefox is designed to be moderately fast and lightweight. As a result, some functionality found in other browsers may not be available by default. To solve this problem the Firefox team made the browser extensible, so it easy to create and integrate extensions that add new functionality to the browser.

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Themes, plugins and search engines
Firefox can also be extended by adding new search engines to the search box, installing new themes to customize the look, and installing new plugins allowing the use of Java and other web technologies. All of these can be found at Mozilla's Firefox add-ons site.

To manage and install extensions, plug-ins, and themes, select the Tools > Add-ons menu entry. New extensions are found by visiting the Firefox add-on site. To install an extension from this site follow the Install link, and when prompted click Install Now.

Further Reading

Firefox has many more features than discussed here; you can find more information on Firefox at the Mozilla Firefox website.

Using Konqueror

To start Konqueror in KDE, select KMenu > Applications > Internet > Konqueror or select KMenu > Favorites > Web Browser. To start Konqueror in GNOME, select Applications > Internet > Konqueror.

Docs Drafts DesktopUserGuide Web konqueror.png This is the default icon associated with Konqueror.
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Konqueror is not installed by default
If you only have Gnome installed, the Konqueror browser is not installed by default. You may install Konqueror if you wish, as well as several other browsers. Konqueror is installed by default if you have installed KDE. See the chapter on managing software.

Transferring Files

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Advanced Usage
This content is written for the more advanced user. It assumes that you are comfortable with the command line and have a relatively good knowledge of Linux terminology. It is probably not necessary to using Fedora as a desktop user, but can help a desktop user expand their knowledge base and face more complicated troubleshooting issues.

Fedora includes several programs for transferring files between different computers on the same network (or on the Internet). On of the most common methods is called the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). There are several graphical programs available to use FTP, including Filezilla and gFTP. You can also use the command line utilities ftp, lftp, and sftp.

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FTP with web browsers
If you don't need to send a file, but only retrieve it, you can use Firefox, Konqueror, and many other web browsers. Just browse to the ftp server in the address bar, and make sure to specify that you want to use FTP. Generically, you would type ftp://ftp.server.com, where ftp.server.com is the address of your FTP server.

FTP on the Command Line

To use the ftp program, type ftp at a console prompt. You should be put into an FTP shell that looks like this:

ftp> 

To get a list of commands, type help. To get a simple description of any command, type help command. This guide will only cover a fraction of these commands; read about the rest in the ftp man page.

Connecting to an FTP Server

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FTP is insecure
If you are transferring files over a public network (such as the Internet), you may not want to use FTP. FTP transfers can be easily intercepted, and FTP data is not encrypted. For more security, use sftp, which encrypts your data over ssh.

To login to an ftp server, use the open command. The syntax is

ftp> open ftp.server.com port

Where ftp.server.com is the FTP server you wish to connect to. It is not necessary to specify a port with this command unless you are connecting to a non-default port. The default port for FTP is port 21. Alternatively, you can connect to an FTP server as you start the ftp program. To do this, use the syntax

ftp ftp.server.com port

Where the port option is, again, optional.

Managing Files

Oftentimes, FTP is used to retrieve a file from a public server. You can pull this file from the server by using the get file command, where file is the name or path of the file you want to retrieve. To view all the files in the directory you have connected to, you can use the ls command. You can also use pwd to determine which directory you are currently in, and then cd to change your directory.

To send a file to the server, type put file, where file is the name or path of the file you wish to send. To view all the files in your local directory (not the remote FTP server), type lcd. You can also type lcd directory to change to a new directory on your local machine.

SFTP on the Command Line

Secure FTP, or SFTP, is an encrypted version of FTP. It connects over SSH



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