Upgrading Fedora using yum/zh-cn

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本页面讲述了如何使用 yum 来升级您的 Fedora 版本。

Contents

直接通过 yum 升级

Warning (medium size).png
此页描述的使用 yum 升级的方法不推荐新用户使用。推荐使用 FedUp
在升级到 Fedora 18 或更新版本时,推荐的使用 FedUp 工具。使用 FedUp 升级说明见 This section

在升级到 Fedora 17 或早期版本时,推荐使用包含 Anaconda 安装器的可引导媒体,详见 Installation Guide,或者通过 PreUpgradePreUpgrade 是一个稍有不同的更新方法,需要在重启系统进入 Anaconda 安装器前下载全部软件包。

尽管使用 yum 升级有效,但它不确定作为发布过程的一个环节而被测试,见 Fedora QA;在 Fedora installation guide 页也没有相应的文档说明。如果你没有做好在出问题后自己解决的准备,你应当使用推荐的安装方法。

当你使用 yum 更新时将无法从 FedUp 或 Anaconda 得到帮助,但是在一个典型系统中,你可以在有限的停机时间内通过 ssh 远程更新系统。(你仍需要重启系统使得新内核和系统库或服务运行)。

当遵循下面的建议时,在一个典型安装的系统中使用 yum 仍能得到很好的实时升级。

参与

如果你在使用 yum 升级的过程中遇到一般性依赖问题,请将它们归档至 http://bugzilla.redhat.com。但在提交 bug 前请阅读此页、所有相关页,搜索邮件列表归档。当然,确保此页最新。

如果你想参与使得实时更新平滑进行,加入 Live Upgrade Special Interest Group

使用 yum 升级详解

1. 备份你的系统

备份所有个人数据到移动硬盘或其他机器。如果发生不可恢复的错误需要重新安装,你将不会丢失任何数据。

2. 阅读常见问题

向下拉这个页面会有具体版本通过 yum 升级常见问题的清单。其中一些问题需要在升级前关注。

升级 Fedora 的一般性建议可以查看 Upgrading 页面。你也可以阅读 Installation GuideRelease Notes 页面查找你计划升级到的版本——它们包含了关于升级问题的重要信息。最后,检查 Common bugs 列表。

3. 清理

在升级前后检索并删除所有的 .rpmsave 和 .rpmnew 文件。(如果开启了 selinux 并移动了配置文件的话,记得检查安全配置。)

Idea.png
查找未使用配置文件
分解和合并通过以下脚本查找出的改动: yum install rpmconf; rpmconf -a 找出并删除不再被使用的配置文件: find /etc /var -name '*.rpm?*'

现在最好移除不再使用的软件包——尤其是那些不标准的软件包。

Idea.png
检索和查找未使用的软件包
你可以通过 yum-utils 软件包中的 package-cleanup 工具找出不再被依赖的软件包: yum install yum-utils; package-cleanup --leaves。 这些软件包将在下一步被删除,但在这之前得检查是否被直接使用或被不依赖 rpm 软件包的应用使用。 删除: yum remove package-name-and-version
另外一个用来清除未使用软件包的实用工具是 rpmreaper。它是一个用于图形化查看 rpm 依赖和将被删除软件包的值守应用。通过一个软件包可以即时查看到其他相关的节点,所以无须再多次检索来查找未使用软件包的子树。安装: yum install rpmreaper
Idea.png
查找和检索丢失的软件包
检查被遗弃的软件包 (例如不再被软件库包含) : package-cleanup --orphans。 这也将列出卸载不完全但是又无法被 "%postun" 清除的软件包。

4. Do the upgrade

If you have 3rd party repositories configured, you may need to adjust them for the new Fedora version. If you switch from one Fedora release to another there is often nothing that needs to be done. If you switch to Rawhide from a standard Fedora release (or vice versa) then most of the time you will need to install the Rawhide release RPMs from the 3rd party repository as well (or the standard ones, if switching back).

Note that the upgrade is likely to fail if there are outdated dependencies from packages not backed by a yum repository or backed by a repository which isn't ready for the new version.

It is a good idea to do the upgrade outside the graphical environment. Log out of your graphical desktop and then

Go to a text console

ctrl + alt + F2

(or)

log in as root, and go into runlevel 3

init 3

Update yum to latest version available in your Fedora version

yum update yum

Install the new fedora gpg key for the version you are updating to

Keys you may find and verify at

https://fedoraproject.org/keys

or see a version specific update instructions at the bottom.

Clean the cache

Then remove all traces of the version you are leaving from the yum cache in /var/cache/yum.

yum clean all

Upgrade all packages

Warning (medium size).png
Once a live upgrade is started, do not stop the upgrade by rebooting, killing the process, or by any other method until it is complete. Interrupting an upgrade will cause the affected system to be in a mixed state -- partially the old release and partially the new release. In this state, the system will not be reliable and will not operate as expected. You can try running yum distro-sync and package-cleanup --problems to try and fix the problems.
yum --releasever=<release_number_you_want_to_sync_to> distro-sync
Warning (medium size).png
If you experience any dependency problems, you are at your own and you have to solve them manually. If you are not able to, use preupgrade! Most often it is enough to remove several problematic package(s). Be sure to not remove half of your installation.

Note: While it is recommended to upgrade to intermediate releases if upgrading from an older release (for example upgrading from Fedora 12 to 13, then 13 to 14), depending on what version you are upgrading from, this step may fail with an error about GPG keys being in the wrong format. To overcome this, you can add the "--nogpgcheck" switch to the above yum distro-sync command.

5. Make sure Fedora is upgraded

Distro-sync will usually take care of upgrades for the third party repositories you have enabled as well. Confirm with
 yum repolist 
after the upgrade process is over. yum might complain about conflicts or requirements. That is probably because you have used non-standard repositories or installed non-standard packages manually. Try to guess which packages cause the problem (or at least is a part of the dependency chain) - uninstall them and try again. Remember to install the packages again if they are essential.

Ensure that all (new) essential packages from the new version are installed with

yum groupupdate Base

You might want to update other groups too, see

yum grouplist

For example

yum groupupdate "GNOME Desktop Environment" \
"Development Tools" "Server Configuration Tools" \
"Hardware Support" "Sound and Video" \
"Graphical Internet" "Fonts" \
"Games and Entertainment" "Printing Software" \
"Administration Tools" "Office/Productivity" "System Tools"

6. Preparing for reboot

Before booting you should usually install the bootloader from your new grub by running

/sbin/grub-install BOOTDEVICE

- where BOOTDEVICE is usually /dev/sda (If you get an error '/dev/sda does not have any corresponding BIOS drive' from that, then try /sbin/grub-install --recheck /dev/sda). For Fedora 16 and later, use /sbin/grub2-install instead of /sbin/grub-install. See below first for important information about upgrading to Fedora 16 from prior releases.

Also, the order of init scripts could have changed from the previous version. A command to reset the order is:

cd /etc/rc.d/init.d; for f in *; do /sbin/chkconfig $f resetpriorities; done

Again, run package-cleanup --orphans to find packages that haven't been upgraded.

Version specific notes

From pre-release

If you are upgrading to a final release from an alpha, beta, preview, or other Rawhide release, please see Upgrading from pre-release to final.

To development version

yum update yum
yum --releasever=rawhide distro-sync --skip-broken --nogpgcheck

Fedora 16 -> Fedora 17

Warning (medium size).png
This references an unreleased version of Fedora. The steps here may change before release.

First install the new Fedora 17 gpg key

rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/1ACA3465.txt

Fedora 17 will locate the entire base operating system in /usr. The directories /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib64 will only be symlinks:

/bin → /usr/bin
/sbin → /usr/sbin
/lib → /usr/lib
/lib64 → /usr/lib64

Some reasoning behind this change is outlined here:

http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/TheCaseForTheUsrMerge

Currently installed systems need some manual steps to convert the current system to match the layout of Fedora 17. After that, the system can continue to be updated with YUM as usual.

Some RPM packages in Fedora 17 are carrying an RPM dependency guard, which will make sure, they can only be installed when /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib64 are symlinks and not directories like in Fedora 16 and older.

The installed system’s base filesystem layout can not be safely altered, while the system itself is running on top of it. Dracut, the initramfs used to find and mount the root filesystem, can be instructed to convert the filesystem to match Fedora 17’s expectations.

If your system has a split-off /usr, a separate mount point, the dracut /usr mount conversion logic might not work. If /usr resides on the net, then ou should add "rd.neednet=1" and the network settings like "ip=dhcp" on the kernel command line. /usr on iSCSI, FCoE, NBD also is supported, as long as “netroot=...” is specified on the kernel command line for these disks (see man dracut.kernel(7)). If you have /usr on LVM, MD raid or DM raid, make sure the kernel command line has either all settings like "rd.lvm.lv=..." to ensure the /usr device is accessible in dracut or just remove all restrictions like "rd.lvm...", "rd.md...", "rd.dm...". Either way, you should probably use anaconda to update, if you are experiencing problems with a separate /usr.

Here are the steps to prepare your system, to convert it, and to be able to continue updating your installed system with yum:

Download and install the most recent dracut packages:

# yum update dracut

You should at least have dracut-009-14.fc15 for Fedora 15 or dracut-013-22.fc16 for Fedora 16.

Turn off any "hostonly" settings in /etc/dracut.conf*, if you turned on "hostonly".

Update the installed initramfs image for your current kernel, and instruct dracut to include the dracut module to convert your current filesystem:

# dracut --force --add convertfs

If your system has a split-off /usr, a separate mount point, and you don't know the kernel command line parameter to add, you can also try (dracut tries to generate them internally):

# dracut -H --force --add convertfs

If dracut detects ‘rd.convertfs’ on the kernel command line at bootup, it starts the filesystem conversion of the root filesystem. If it is already converted, it will just do nothing.

Warning (medium size).png
dracut will by default update the initramfs for the currently running kernel. Make sure that no new kernel has been installed since last boot and that you really will boot into the updated initramfs.

Change the following kernel commandline parameter directly in the bootloader menu, which is shown during bootup, or edit the line in /etc/grub*.cfg to remove ro and rhgb and append rw rd.info rd.convertfs enforcing=0

Explanation of the options:

- remove “ro” (read only)
- append “rw” (read write) to let dracut mount your root filesystem writeable
- remove “rhgb” (Red Hat graphical boot) to disable the graphical bootsplash
- append “rd.info” to get a more verbose output from dracut
- append “rd.convertfs” to enable the /usr-move conversion script in dracut
- append “enforcing=0” to disable SELinux enforcement

During bootup, dracut will now convert your filesystem, and /lib, /lib64, /bin and /sbin should then all be symbolic links to the corresponding directories in /usr.

After the conversion, the system needs to be immediately updated to Fedora 17. No packages from Fedora 16 or Fedora 15, or older rawhide packages must be installed anymore. Make sure to disable any Fedora 15 and Fedora 16 repositories in yum!

Any files with conflicting names, which the conversion could not resolve, will be backed up to files named *.usrmove~ residing in /usr/lib, /usr/lib64, /usr/bin and /usr/sbin.

Verify that dracut really completed the conversion. The log messages, which dracut has generated during bootup, can be retrieved with:

# dmesg | grep dracut

After a successful conversion, revert the changes made to the kernel command line in the bootloader config file /etc/grub*.cfg.

Then run,

# yum --releasever=17 update rpm
# rm -f /var/lib/rpm/__*
# rpm --rebuilddb
# yum --releasever=17 --disableplugin=presto --skip-broken distro-sync
# fixfiles onboot  

After upgrading, all should be set and done.

Have fun with your system and say “Good bye” to /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib64 and meet them in /usr.

Fedora 15 -> Fedora 16

First install the new fedora 16 gpg key. You may wish to verify this package against https://fedoraproject.org/keys and the fedora ssl certificate.

rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/A82BA4B7.txt

Next run chkconfig --list and note the enabled services; you will need to re-enable these with systemctl enable xxxxx.service after you reboot, as the Package-x-generic-16.pngsysvinit settings aren't propagated into Package-x-generic-16.pngsystemd. See release notes for more details.

Upgrade all packages with

yum update yum
yum clean all
yum --releasever=16 --disableplugin=presto distro-sync
Warning (medium size).png
Bootloader change
After the upgrade, you will have the Package-x-generic-16.pnggrub2 and Package-x-generic-16.pnggrub-efi packages installed and the Package-x-generic-16.pnggrub package removed. However, grub will still be installed to the MBR and booting should still work. You can follow the instructions below to switch to grub2 if you choose. If installed, the Package-x-generic-16.pngfirstaidkit-plugin-grub package may prevent the upgrade; do simply remove that package if that is the case.

If your system uses a BIOS, or you installed Fedora via BIOS emulation mode on an EFI system (not native EFI mode), you can switch to Fedora 16's supported grub2 bootloader with the following instructions. If your system was installed by native EFI boot, do not switch to grub2, as its EFI support is still unreliable. Fedora 16's supported bootloader for native EFI installations is still grub-legacy, so you should simply continue to use the system without making any special changes to the bootloader configuration.

To switch to grub2, run the command su -c '/sbin/grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg', then proceed as described above with reinstalling the bootloader.

Known you upgrade -specific issues (for common problems, see references above):

  • Bug 743022 - F15->F16 yum update fails with IMSM (BIOS) raid


Fedora 14 -> Fedora 15

First install the new fedora 15 gpg key. You may wish to verify this package against https://fedoraproject.org/keys and the fedora ssl certificate.

rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/069C8460.txt

Upgrade all packages with

yum update yum
yum clean all
yum --releasever=15 --disableplugin=presto distro-sync
  • Do not run this from within an X terminal. Testing shows that X might hang while updating bitmap font packages.
  • There exist .drpms, but they don't match, due to a format change, so better disable the presto plugin by adding the option "--disableplugin=presto" (without quotes) when running yum.
  • The F15 screen client is not capable of attaching to F14 screen sessions. Thus, if you want to run the upgrade under screen, you should either upgrade screen itself in a separate operation or make a separate copy of screen to use throughout the process.
  • mysql 5.5.20 shipped with F15 uses InnoDB as default storage engine. After upgrading, mysqld could refuse to start-up with error Unknown/unsupported storage engine: InnoDB if argument skip-innodb is given on command line or configuration file /etc/my.cnf. Workarounds are removing the line (InnoDB will be run as default engine), or adding default-storage-engine command options specifying some other storage engine.

VirtualBox guest upgrades

The steps above work perfectly for upgrading a Fedora 14 guest to Fedora 15, but you also need to remove the Guest Additions. If you forget, F14 -> F15 upgrades will seem to fail after the first reboot. If that happens, log in to the console with CTRL+ALT+F2 and reinstall the guest additions manually:

mount /dev/cdrom /media
# if /dev/cdrom does not exist, try:
# mount /dev/sr0 /media
/bin/sh /media/VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
reboot

Fedora 13 -> Fedora 14

First install the new fedora 14 gpg key. You may wish to verify this package against https://fedoraproject.org/keys and the fedora ssl certificate.

rpm --import https://fedoraproject.org/static/97A1071F.txt

Upgrade all packages with

yum update yum
yum clean all
yum --releasever=14 distro-sync
  • If using VirtualBox from the Oracle repository, you must remove the VirtualBox-3.1 package before upgrading. After the upgrade is finished, install VirtualBox-3.2.

If you are running SELinux you may be locked out of your machine and required to boot to single user mode to fix up your machine. Redhat bug 702865 describes a fix as:

  1. setenforce 0
  2. yum remove selinux-policy selinux-policy-targeted
  3. rm -rf /etc/selinux/targeted

If, after upgrading you want selinux back:

  1. yum install selinux-policy selinux-policy-targeted
  2. fixfiles restore
  3. reboot

Upgrading from legacy end of life (EOL) Fedoras

Note.png
Yum upgrading from older versions
Upgrading from older versions of Fedora is archived here: Upgrading from EOL Fedora using yum