- 1 Description
- 2 How can you tell if you have an optimus notebook computer?
- 3 Before you get started
- 4 Types of Drivers
- 5 Installation (NVIDIA Proprietary)
- 6 Usage
- 7 Uninstallation
- 8 Multi monitor setup with closed driver
- 9 Troubleshooting
- 9.1 [VGL] ERROR: Could not open display :8
- 9.2 Xlib: extension "GLX" missing on display ":0.0"
- 9.3 [ERROR]Cannot access secondary GPU: No devices detected
- 9.4 NVIDIA(0): Failed to assign any connected display devices to X screen 0
- 9.5 Failed to initialize the NVIDIA GPU at PCI:1:0:0 (GPU fallen off the bus / RmInitAdapter failed!)
- 9.6 Could not load GPU driver
- 9.7 /dev/dri/card0: failed to set DRM interface version 1.4: Permission denied
- 9.8 ERROR: ld.so: object 'libdlfaker.so' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored
- 9.9 Fatal IO error 11 (Resource temporarily unavailable) on X server
- 9.10 Video Tearing
- 9.11 Bumblebee cannot connect to socket
- 9.12 Primusrun mouse delay (disable VSYNC)
- 9.13 Primus issues under compositing window managers
- 9.14 Compatibility with recent laptops that have American Megatrend BIOSes
- 9.15 Broken power management with kernel 4.8
- 10 Useful links
Nvidia Optimus is an optimization technology created by Nvidia which, depending on the resource load generated by client software applications, will transparently and seamlessly switch between two graphics adapters within a computer system in order to provide either maximum performance or minimum power draw from the system's graphics rendering hardware. From Bumblebee's FAQ: Bumblebee is a effort to make Nvidia Optimus enabled laptops work in GNU/Linux systems. Such feature involves two graphics cards with two different power consumption profiles plugged in a layered way sharing a single framebuffer.
The discrete GPU (NVidia) is turned off when not in use and activated and turned on though ACPI calls when demanding OpenGL applications require the extra power the discrete GPU can give. Demanding OpenGL applications might include such things as 3D games or 3D rendering software but would not include such things as a web browser or a video playback program like mplayer or VLC.
How can you tell if you have an optimus notebook computer?
If you purchased a notebook with an NVidia sticker on it, you might have a optimus computer. If you don’t have an optimus technology computer nothing in this documentation is relevant to your PC. (Optimus was slated at one point to go in desktop PCs but the industry ended up rejecting that concept…)
To tell, after you have installed the OS, open a terminal window and type:
$ lspci -vnn | grep '\''[030\]'
If you see two video cards in the output like:
$ lspci -vnn | grep '\''[030\]' 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller : Intel Corporation HD Graphics 520 [8086:1916] (rev 07) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller]) 01:00.0 3D controller : NVIDIA Corporation GM108M [GeForce 930M] [10de:1346] (rev ff) (prog-if ff)
And one is a Intel “Integrated Graphics Controller” and the other is a “NVIDIA Corporation” chip, then you probably have an optimus notebook.
To further verify, if you have the two VGA devices with one as Intel Integrated and other as NVIDIA, as root look for the /sys/kernel/debug/vgaswitcheroo/switch file. If it exists, then you have an optimus PC. If its missing, then you might not. (It might be that you have a card that nouveau can’t use yet because it is too new…)
Before you get started
Most users will want to turn off “Secure boot” in the bios or UEFI screen when you need nvidia drivers or bbswitch-dkms. If you want to make your own public / private keys for kernel module signing you can look here or here for more information on the subject. If you end up doing that and use the closed source NVidia driver, you will need to edit the /etc/bumblebee/bumblebee-nvidia-sign.conf file.
Next, do a dnf update before you begin. And just to be safe, reboot your PC so that you are booted into the newest kernel. The reason for this is that you want the kernel-devel package to match the kernel you are running under. If you don’t reboot after a dnf update these versions may differ which will cause compiling problems.
Types of Drivers
Free and Open Source Driver (Nouveau)
Proprietary Closed Source Driver (NVIDIA)
Some users may prefer to use the closed-source proprietary drivers as they offer better performance than the open source ones. In that case, there's two sources from where you can get your drivers: http://rpmfusion.org/ and http://negativo17.org/. Although both these sources are valid and will work, the negative017 driver is generally recommended over the RPMFusion ones, as the negative017 drivers are generally kept up to date and follow Fedora packaging guidelines better. They have also been known to work with Fedora to improve integration.
Installation (NVIDIA Proprietary)
To Install the NVIDIA drivers, first add the negative017 repo:
# sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo=https://negativo17.org/repos/fedora-nvidia.repo
then, Install the necessary packages:
# sudo dnf install nvidia-driver kernel-devel akmod-nvidia dkms acpi
To get Bumblebee, we first need to enable the chenxiaolong/bumblebeecopr repository:
# sudo dnf copr enable chenxiaolong/bumblebee
Next, install the bbswitch driver, bumblebee and primus:
# sudo dnf install akmod-bbswitch bumblebee primus
For the "optirun" and "primusrun" commands to work, the current user must be added to the bumblebee group.
# sudo gpasswd -a $USER bumblebee
Enable the bumblebeed service and disable the nvidia-fallback service. The nvidia-fallback service comes from the negativo17 drivers and will attempt to load nouveau if nvidia fails to load. However, when using Bumblebee, neither one should load at boot.
# sudo systemctl enable bumblebeed # sudo systemctl disable nvidia-fallback
Finally, reboot and bumblebee should be ready to go.
General usage syntax:
$ optirun [options] application [application-parameters]
For example, start a Windows applications with optimus named application.exe:
$ optirun wine application.exe
For another example, open NVidia settings panel with optimus:
$ optirun -b none nvidia-settings -c :8
For another example, open the java based Minecraft with primus bridge:
$ optirun -b primus java -jar /PATH/TO/Minecraft.jar
For a list of the options for optirun, view its manual page:
$ man optirun
In general, using the primus bridge gives better performance then using the default VirtualGL bridge. In bumblebee 4.0 (coming soon) primus will become the default bridge and VirtuaGL will need to be called explicitly if you still want it. Also beginning with bumblebee 4.0 (coming soon) the VirtuaGL dependency will be replaced with a primus dependency instead. So you might not even have VirtuaGL installed by default in the future.
For primus, there is a separate shell script you can use to invoke it called “primusrun.”
For a list of the options for primusrun, view its manual page:
$ man primusrun
$ primusrun java -jar /PATH/TO/Minecraft.jar
$ optirun -b primus java -jar /PATH/TO/Minecraft.jar
are functionally equivalent commands.
It may become tedious to always use the optirun program in a terminal to launch 3D games or other 3D opengl applications. You may wish to create desktop launchers which use the optirun or primusrun commands in order to streamline this process.
For example, in MATE desktop environment, when you right click on an empty space in the desktop a popup menu is displayed. One option on this menu is “Create launcher..” which allows you to create a graphical launcher icon for your apps which can be left on the desktop or moved into some folder. Other desktop environments also offer this functionality though the methods differ from desktop to desktop.
To uninstall bumblebee:
# sudo dnf remove akmod-bbswitch bumblebee primus # sudo systemctl preset nvidia-fallback
To remove the bumblebee repo:
# sudo dnf copr remove chenxiaolong/bumblebee
To uninstall the nvidia drivers:
# sudo dnf remove nvidia-driver kernel-devel akmod-nvidia
To remove the negative017 repo:
# sudo rm /etc/yum.repos.d/fedora-nvidia.repo
Multi monitor setup with closed driver
Optimus laptops have two video chips: an integrated Intel and a discrete NVidia one. If the port (DisplayPort / HDMI / VGA) is wired to the Intel chip, you do not need to do anything special to get external monitors to work.
When the external port is wired into the NVidia chip, you cannot currently expand the screen over monitors without extra effort. Read on if you fall into this category…
# dnf install intel-gpu-tools
Running ‘intel-virtual-output’ (from the intel-gpu-tools rpm) without any extra parameters will daemonize itself and detect attached displays in the background. It will then perform all the trickery of virtualizing and cloning so that the newly attached screen can be used via conventional screen management methods, such as cloning/extending with xrandr.
For example, if your laptop’s display is called eDP1, and your using a external adapter called HDMI1, and you wanted the display to be 1920×1080 resolution, you could run the following commands:
To have your HDMI screen to the right of your desktop, run:
$ xrandr –output eDP1 –mode 1920×1080 –output HDMI1 –mode 1920×1080 –right-of eDP1
To clone your desktop, run:
$ xrandr –output eDP1 –mode 1920×1080 –output HDMI1 –mode 1920×1080 –same-as eDP1
There are many different possibilities. Type xrandr with no arguments to see what displays you have attached. See this web page for further information on this subject. Read the manual page for xrandr for even more information on the possibilities this command provides.
If intel-virtual-output works ok running by hand you could add it to your startup automatically if you desire. One way would be to create a /etc/rc.d/rc.local script and add it into there. Another way might be to create a systemd unit file as Type=oneshot. A third way might be to run it at login using whatever mechanism your desktop environment supports for doing such things. For example, in MATE desktop environment, there is a mate-session-properties program (System -> Preferences -> Personal -> Startup Applications) that you can run programs from when you login. Most desktop environments offer similar functionality though the methods differ from desktop to desktop.
[VGL] ERROR: Could not open display :8
There is a known problem with some wine applications that fork and kill the parent process without keeping track of it (for example the free to play online game "Runes of Magic")
This is a known problem with VirtualGL. As of bumblebee 3.1, so long as you have it installed, you can use Primus as your render bridge:
$ optirun -b primus wine windows program.exe
Xlib: extension "GLX" missing on display ":0.0"
If you tried to install the NVIDIA driver from NVIDIA website, this is not going to work. Please uninstall the driver and reinstall using one of the above mentioned repos.
[ERROR]Cannot access secondary GPU: No devices detected
In some instances, running optirun will return:
[ERROR]Cannot access secondary GPU - error: [XORG] (EE) No devices detected. [ERROR]Aborting because fallback start is disabled.
In this case, you will need to move the file
/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf to somewhere else, restart the bumblebeed daemon and it should work. If you do need to change some features for the Intel module, a workaround is to merge
It could be also necessary to comment the driver line in
You might need to define the NVIDIA card somewhere (e.g.
file /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia), using the correct
BusID according to
Section "Device" Identifier "nvidiagpu1" Driver "nvidia" BusID "PCI:0:1:0" EndSection
Observe that the format of
lspci output is in HEX, while in xorg it is in decimals. So if the output of
lspci is, for example,
BusID should be
NVIDIA(0): Failed to assign any connected display devices to X screen 0
If the console output is:
[ERROR]Cannot access secondary GPU - error: [XORG] (EE) NVIDIA(0): Failed to assign any connected display devices to X screen 0 [ERROR]Aborting because fallback start is disabled.
You can change this line in
Option "ConnectedMonitor" "DFP"
Option "ConnectedMonitor" "CRT"
Failed to initialize the NVIDIA GPU at PCI:1:0:0 (GPU fallen off the bus / RmInitAdapter failed!)
rcutree.rcu_idle_gp_delay=1 to your kernel parameters.
Could not load GPU driver
If the console output is:
[ERROR]Cannot access secondary GPU - error: Could not load GPU driver
and if you try to load the nvidia module you get:
modprobe nvidia modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'nvidia': Exec format error
This could be because the nvidia driver is out of sync with the Linux kernel, for example if you installed the latest nvidia driver and haven't updated the kernel in a while. A full system update might resolve the issue.
/dev/dri/card0: failed to set DRM interface version 1.4: Permission denied
This could be worked around by appending following lines in
Section "Screen" Identifier "Default Screen" Device "DiscreteNvidia" EndSection
ERROR: ld.so: object 'libdlfaker.so' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored
You're probably trying to start a 32-bit application with bumblebee on a 64-bit system. Please install the 32-bit versions of the packages mentioned above.
If the problem persists, please try using the primus bridge that was mentioned above.
true. Your program forks into background and bumblebee doesn't know anything about it.
Video tearing is a somewhat common problem on Bumblebee. To fix it, you need to enable vsync. It should be enabled by default on the Intel card, but verify that from Xorg logs. To check whether or not it is enabled for NVIDIA, make sure
nvidia-settings is installed and run:
# optirun -b none nvidia-settings -c :8
X Server XVideo Settings -> Sync to VBlank and
OpenGL Settings -> Sync to VBlank should both be enabled.
Bumblebee cannot connect to socket
If the console output is:
[ 1648.179533] [ERROR]You've no permission to communicate with the Bumblebee daemon. Try adding yourself to the 'bumblebee' group [ 1648.179628] [ERROR]Could not connect to bumblebee daemon - is it running?
Verify whether or not you are in the
# groups | grep bumblebee
Another reason for this error could be that you haven't actually turned on both gpus in your bios, and as a result, the Bumblebee daemon is in fact not running. Check the bios settings carefully and be sure intel graphics (integrated graphics - may be abbreviated in bios as something like igfx) has been enabled or set to auto, and that it's the primary gpu. Your display should be connected to the onboard integrated graphics, not the discrete graphics card.
If you mistakenly had the display connected to the discrete graphics card and intel graphics was disabled, you probably installed Bumblebee after first trying to run Nvidia alone. In this case, be sure to remove the /etc/X11/xorg.conf or .../20-nvidia... configuration files. If Xorg is instructed to use Nvidia in a conf file, X will fail.
Primusrun mouse delay (disable VSYNC)
VSYNC is enabled by default and as a result, it could make mouse input delay lag or even slightly decrease performance. Test
# vblank_mode=0 primusrun <command>
If you are satisfied with the above setting, create an alias (e.g.
alias primusrun="vblank_mode=0 primusrun").
Primus issues under compositing window managers
Since compositing hurts performance, invoking primus when a compositing WM is active is not recommended. If you need to use primus with compositing and see flickering or bad performance, synchronizing primus' display thread with the application's rendering thread may help:
# PRIMUS_SYNC=1 primusrun <command>
This makes primus display the previously rendered frame.
Compatibility with recent laptops that have American Megatrend BIOSes
Some recent laptop models featuring AMI bioses have some compatibility issues with bbswitch and Optimus, making them unable to load into graphics mode and crashing every time it is attempted, as discussed in further details in this post on the Bumblebee's github: https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/issues/764#issuecomment-234494238 .
If you are trying to use Linux on a recent Optimus laptop and it crashes every time you try to enter a graphics environment, please try adding the following parameters to your boot loader (Fedora users usually have GRUB installed):
acpi_osi=! acpi_osi='Windows 2009'
This seems to work on most laptop models facing this issue, but bear in mind that this workaround has not been tested in every laptop model ever made – so your mileage may vary. If the problems persist, you could try updating your BIOS or look for more info in the Bumblebee documentation and their community.
Broken power management with kernel 4.8
If you have a newer laptop (BIOS date 2015 or newer), then Linux 4.8 might break bbswitch since bbswitch does not support the newer, recommended power management method. As a result, the dGPU may fail to power on, fail to power off or worse.
See Issue 140 for further information about this problem.
As a workaround, add
pcie_port_pm=off to your kernel parameters.
Alternatively, if you are only interested in power saving (and perhaps use of external monitors), remove bumblebee / bbswitch and rely on Nouveau runtime power-management (which supports the new method).