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本文档由 Rahul Sundaram 维护。 Feel free to edit the wiki or contact the maintainer for any kind of feedback.

正如其他的Linux发行版一样,Fedora也常常被问到许多问题,我们试着将一些常见问题的回答放在这里。您可能也对FedoraMyths页感兴趣,该页描述了一些关于Fedora的典型误解和事实。如果本FAQ没有回答您的问题,请参考在本页最后列出的其他Fedora资源。

Contents

开始

为什么我们使用 Fedora?

Fedora 包括了一些最好的、最新的,以及最健壮的免费、开源软件。 概述 页面描述了许多 Fedora 的优点。

哪些人群适合使用 Fedora?

我们认为以下人群适合使用 Fedora,但是,决不仅限于此:

  • Linux 爱好者
  • Computer-friendly
  • 经常进行协作的人员
  • General productivity user

详细信息,请参考: 用户基础

我能从哪得到Fedora?我能够重新发放Fedora或制作一个衍生版吗?

我们强烈鼓励您下载、使用、或重新发放Fedora,在免费且开源的许可证(如GPL)下,您也可以修改并制作基于Fedora的衍生版。但所有对使用必须遵从Fedora Trademark Guidelines的指引。详情请参见:

我的硬件和Fedora兼容吗?

Linux能支持所有类型的组件和外设。Fedora包括所有Linux硬件支持项目提供的驱动。Fedora安装进程将自动检测您计算机上的被支持的硬件。

一些特定类型的硬件需要由厂商提供的Linux驱动或暂时不能被Linux支持。如果Fedora无法自动检测到合适的驱动,您可能需要手工安装附加的驱动或固件。

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Internet连接
调制解调器和/或无线网络连接需要在安装进程结束后进行额外的配置。更多信息,请参考网络连接一节。

如下WEB站点提供了更为详细的Linux硬件支持信息:

文档:Fedora发行注记提供了一些特殊硬件型号的已知问题:

更多关于Fedora硬件政策的信息,请参考在 硬件认证中提出的问题。

如何安装 Fedora?

Fedora 提供了对用户十分友好的安装界面,包括图形和命令行界面。请阅读相关文档以了解更多:

Live CD/DVD 镜像和常规的安装镜像有什么不同?

  • Live 镜像提供的软件包是常规 CD/DVD 镜像中可用的软件包的一个子集。二者都连接到同样的软件仓库,那里有着所有的软件包。
  • Live 镜像安装时不允许选择或升级软件包,因为它只是将安装截止上的文件系统拷贝到硬盘或 USB 磁盘。安装完成后启动进入新系统时,您可以使用 PackageKit 或者 yum 根据自己所需添加删除软件包。
  • Live 镜像在 i586 架构上不工作,它至少需要 i686 架构。


使用 Fedora

如何配置网络连接?Fedora 对无线连接的支持如何?

缺省情况下,Fedora 会配置您电脑上的网卡使用 DHCP 自动获取正确的网络配置。如果您的电脑连接的是有线网络或者 DSL 路由器,那么就不需要再做进一步配置。

对于其他类型的连接,您可以使用 Network Manager,它在 Fedora 中缺省已经安装启用。这个新系统提供自动的网络配置,包括无线配置,而且提供了 VPN 连接的配置界面。使用 NetworkManager,笔记本电脑可以在不同网络之间无缝切换。参考 docs.fedoraproject.org 上的系统管理员指南(System Administrator's Guide)。

另外还可以参考 docs.fedoraproject.org 上的 Fedora 无线指南(Fedora Wireless Guide)以了解更多有关无线以及它的 Fedora 中的实现等信息。

如何在 Fedora 中安装新软件?有类似 APT 的工具吗?

yum 会帮助您管理系统上的软件。yum 会访问称为“软件仓库”的网站,下载安装软件包的最新版本。Fedora 系统还包含了一个 yum 的图形界面,它位于主菜单的“应用程序 > 添加/删除软件”。

Fedora 目前包含了超过 15,000 个软件包。

请参阅以下页面了解关于 yum 的更多信息:

Apt 也在 Fedora 的软件仓库中,但没有作为默认的包管理器。参见 APT 页面了解详细信息:

如何保持 Fedora 系统最新?

Fedora 包含了 PackageKit,每当有更新时它会提供桌面提醒以自动通知您。要手动完成系统更新,选择 系统 > 管理 > 更新系统。这个使用程序会更新您系统中由 yum 软件仓库提供的所有软件。

要从命令行开始完整的系统更新,在提示符处输入如下命令:

su -c 'yum update'

当出现提示时输入 root 密码。

Fedora 可以自动更新吗?

是的,尽管自动更新并不适合所有系统。请参考 AutoUpdates 获知有关在您的 Fedora 系统中是否使用这个特性以及如何使用的更多细节。您可以在 系统 > 首选项 > 系统 > 软件更新 里进行设置。

如何获得软件新发行版本的通知?

Fedora 包含的 PackageKit 可以在每当有可用更新时通知您。如果想要在新软件以及软件更新一经出现时就收到通知,您可以订阅通告邮件列表或 RSS 源:

其他重要通告可以通过订阅 Fedora 项目通告邮件列表来获得:

Yum 或 添加/删除软件(PackageKit) 支持从 CD/DVD 介质安装吗?

PackageKit 对它提供支持的工作还在进展中。更多请参见 PackageKit FAQ。至于使用介质作为 yum 软件仓库,请参阅 http://www.city-fan.org/tips/SubsetRepositories。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含对专有格式例如 MP3 或 MPEG 的支持?

MP3 和 MPEG 格式受专利保护,专利持有人没有将这些技术以兼容于 Fedora 的需求的许可证发布。

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含严格版权或专利限制下的技术。要了解更多有关 Fedora 中多媒体支持的信息,包括更多有关 MP3 和 MPEG 支持的内容,请参考 Multimedia 页面。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含 DVD 视频播放支持?

DVD 视频格式受专利保护,专利持有人没有将这些技术以兼容于 Fedora 的需求的许可证发布。许多 DVD 视频还使用一种拷贝保护技术,播放这些视频所需的代码可能违反 美国的版权法律数字千年版权法案(Digital Millennium Copyright Act, DMCA)的规定。

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含严格版权或专利限制下的技术。要了解更多有关 Fedora 中多媒体支持的信息,包括更多有关 DVD 视频支持的内容,请参考 Multimedia 页面。

为什么 Fedora 没有包含 Adobe 的 Acrobat Reader,Adobe 的 Flash Player,或者 RealPlayer 等专有软件?

Fedora 仅支持、包含自由和开源软件,不包含专有软件。这些程序中的许多可用在 Fedora 中,您可以从其他厂商获得它们。要了解更多信息,参见 ForbiddenItems 页面。

Fedora 中有 Java 吗?

是的,有。Fedora 包含 OpenJDK,它是自由开源许可证下的 Sun Java。请参阅我们的 JavaFAQ 页面以了解有关 Java 和 Fedora 的信息。

什么是 SELinux,在哪里获知关于它的更多信息?

Fedora 是世界上第一个默认提供强制访问控制(Mandatory Access Control, MAC)安全系统的主流操作系统,使用的正是 SELinux 框架。通过限制系统上进程的权限,Fedora 中的 SELinux 配置提供了增强的安全性。这些限制很大程度上减小了安全漏洞的影响,因为服务对系统的其他部分只有有限的访问权限。Fedora 中的 SELinux 还有一个“严格”策略,在对安全非常敏感的环境中会很有用。还有其他一些安全系统通过 SELinux 框架被启用,例如 MLS、MCS 以及 RBAC。

请参考如下文档以了解有关 Fedora 中 SELinux 实现的更多信息:

什么是虚拟化?我可以在哪学习使用它?

Fedora 包含了对虚拟化的广泛支持。这使得多个操作系统可以同时运行在同一机器上,整体性能只能很少降低。每个操作系统都分配宿主计算机的部分资源。管理员还可以在机器之间移动正在运行的操作系统,无需打断或关闭服务。

Virtualization 页面可以帮助您入门。

Fedora 的下一个版本什么时候发布?发布日程是什么?

请参阅 Fedora 项目发布日程 页面。

Fedora 的每个发布版本维护多久?

Fedora 项目维护每个发布版本到两个后继版本后一个月。Fedora 发布版本的生命周期在如下页面详细介绍:

在哪里可以找到有关 Fedora 安全更新的信息?

参见 Fedora 安全公告 页面。

What is the errata or updates policy for The Fedora Project?

Security updates, bugfix updates, and new feature updates will all be available, through Red Hat and third parties. Updates may be staged (first made available for public qualification, then later for general consumption) when appropriate. In drastic cases, we may remove a package from The Fedora Project if we judge that a necessary security update is too problematic/disruptive to the larger goals of the project. Availability of updates should not be misconstrued as support for anything other than continued development and innovation of the code base. Some updates that are too disruptive to include in a general release will be made available only in the development branch and included in the subsequent general release. Merely continuing to update won't lead to a next release and you need to explicitly do a distribution upgrade if desired. Updates are available for every release for the period denoted in the LifeCycle page.

Red Hat will not be providing an SLA (Service Level Agreement) for resolution times for updates for The Fedora Project. Security updates will take priority. For packages maintained by external parties, Red Hat may respond to security holes by deprecating packages if the external maintainers do not provide updates in a reasonable time. Users who want support, or maintenance according to an SLA, may purchase the appropriate Red Hat Enterprise Linux product for their use.

我有一个预发布版本的 Fedora。我可以升级到最终版吗?

是的。请参考 升级预发布版到最终版 了解其详情。

我有一个旧版 Fedora。我可以升级现有安装吗?

当然可以。请参阅 DistributionUpgrades 页面了解有关升级选项的更多信息。

Help

Where can I find help?

You can find documentation and get help through forums, IRC, or mailing lists from others in the Fedora community. See the Communicate page for more information:

Please do not contact Fedora developers directly, or use the special developer channels, for end-user support. The developers are very busy writing and maintaining Fedora software and do not have much spare time for these issues.

I hear all of these terms that are unfamiliar, what do they mean?

For definitions to many of the most common terms, refer to the Glossary .

Where can I report bugs or request features for software packages existing in Fedora?

Refer to the BugsAndFeatureRequests page for guidance on this.

Where I can learn more about security features and status in Fedora? How do I report a security bug?

Refer to the Security page for all of this information.

I'm experiencing a problem, and I think it might be my hardware. Where should I look?

Check the HardwareProblems page before posting bugs that might be known hardware problems.

Where can I request a newer version of a package in Fedora?

File a request in http://bugzilla.redhat.com against the particular package you would like to have a update. Providing more details on why you want that particular update would be useful information for the package maintainers.


I have a question that isn't in this list. Where else can I find help?

See the links for Fedora Resources at the bottom of this page.

Can I donate to the Fedora Project?

Yes, you can donate your time to Fedora Project by contributing to Fedora, or to free and open source software in general. You can also donate money but that requires a bit more creativity! Refer to Contribute for more details.

About Fedora

What is Fedora?

Fedora is a Linux-based operating system that showcases the latest in free and open source software. Fedora is always free for anyone to use, modify, and distribute. It is built by people across the globe who work together as a community: the Fedora Project. The Fedora Project is open and anyone is welcome to join. The Fedora Project is out front for you, leading the advancement of free, open software and content.

Refer also to the Overview page.

What are the objectives of Fedora?

Why a project instead of a product?

A global steering committee at Red Hat decided that Red Hat Linux was suffering from too many compromises as a retail product, and that the company should redirect efforts toward creating a community-based project. Rather than being subject to retail product delivery schedules, Fedora is released on schedules set by a decision-making process that is open, and influenced by the community.

What are the primary benefits of this change?

Changing the product to a project will:

  • Ensure that users can get the latest bits as quickly as possible.
  • Create new opportunities for developers and users to participate in The Fedora Project development by opening up the full development process for anyone to see and join if they'd like.
  • Allow us to use The Fedora Project to develop and mature the latest, greatest technologies.
  • Speed up the development process, taking better advantage of the inherent strengths of the open source model.

Will Red Hat provide formal technical support for The Fedora Project?

No, no formal Web or phone support for The Fedora Project will be available from Red Hat. Red Hat's supported product line will be based in part on a recent release of Fedora, and our development will be done externally as part of The Fedora Project as much as possible.

How will The Fedora Project be made available to the public?

Fedora releases will be available as ISO images for both CDs and DVDs, and will also be available through other channels such as third-party online sales of physical media; distribution at Linux User Groups, included in magazines and in books, and maybe even handed out at trade shows. The bits may be actively pushed into content sharing networks such as BitTorrent. (Not all mechanisms will be used for each release, except that ISOs will be freely available for each release.)

Will Fedora be sold in retail?

Fedora will not be sold through the retail channel as a shrinkwrapped box. There is no list price for Fedora. The rapid development pace we expect for Fedora doesn't suit retail distribution — it is a lot of work to get a box product in and out of the channel, and retail isn't set up to efficiently handle software that is updated as often as every six months. Also, the creation of packaging and other materials that are necessary for retail significantly slows down the time to market, which means that users can't get the freshest bits when they are still truly fresh. Further information on Red Hat's retail product line is available at the Red Hat website.

What is the difference between "Fedora distribution", "The Fedora Project", and "Fedora"?

The Fedora Project is a collection of sub-projects. The Fedora distribution is the central project, which aims to provide a platform with the best in free and open source software. Fedora generally refers to the Fedora Project as a whole, and is sometimes used to refer to Fedora or a system running a collection of software from the Fedora Project.

Whom can I contact in the individual Fedora sub-projects?

Try the project's mailing list first, which gives the project leads and other community members the chance to help you. You can find information for the various projects on the Communicate page.

How is the Fedora Project organized and governed?

The Fedora Project is managed by a board of community members and Red Hat employees, with Red Hat providing significant funding and other services such as bandwidth and hosting, broad direction, engineering, and marketing.

The Fedora Project is a collection of many smaller projects , working together to produce the platform and build the supporting community. These different sub-projects are independent of one another, but work together to achieve common goals and coordinate efforts.

Each of the sub-projects has leads or a Steering Committee to organize and guide that project's development. The Fedora Project operates as a meritocracy , where responsibility and power are granted based upon ability and effort. The people who lead Fedora are selected because they have proven they are willing and able to do so.

What kind of project management method does each Fedora sub-project use?

Each project has either leads or a Steering Committee to guide it. Individual contributors are given a great deal of freedom to work on whatever they choose, but they are asked to follow the guidance from the project's committee for processes and approval for new initiatives.

Like other responsibilities in the Fedora Project, committee membership is based largely upon merit, but all voices are welcome, and new ideas and opinions will be given due attention. Innovating and leading new ideas is a great way to earn recognition within the community.

Contributors can join committee members in regular IRC meetings. The meetings are open, and minutes are made publicly available and usually posted to the appropriate mailing list. Raw IRC logs are also sometimes available.

Most sub-projects keep a schedule of tasks on this wiki. Check the Projects page for links to individual sub-project pages. From those individual pages, you can find all of the available information for that project.

Does the Fedora Project assign tasks to contributors, or do the contributors decide what to do?

Interested volunteers are encouraged to take up the tasks they would like to contribute towards. You can avoid redundant tasks by posting to the relevant project list and coordinating with other interested community members. If you're not sure where you want to contribute, see the join page for different areas that can use your help. The Fedora Mentors project can guide you if you need further help.

Is there a partnership program between schools or non-profits and Fedora?

Not at present. If you have any ideas or suggestions to create such a program, please bring it to the attention of Fedora Marketing . Interested schools and non-profits are welcome to join us for discussions.

Is there a partnership program between LUGs and Fedora?

We attempt to work with Linux User Groups in whatever ways we can. Our list of LUG contacts is on our LinuxUserGroups page. If you would like to represent your LUG, please add your LUG to that list. We also encourage our Ambassadors to engage their local LUGs.

Can schools and non-profits reference the "Fedora Project" name and other Fedora marks if they are interacting with the Fedora community?

Yes, as long as they make it clear whether or not they are representing the Project. If they would like to represent the Project, they can approach and coordinate with the Fedora Marketing team. This and other uses of Fedora marks are subject to the terms of the Trademark Guidelines .

Is there a certification program for third-party applications running on Fedora?

No. The Fedora Project is dedicated to providing the best in free and open source software. Fedora leads in open solutions, and is developed with a rapid release cycle. Fedora Package Collection allows a vast array of additional Free and open source solutions to be contributed by the community and maintained for Fedora. Beyond these projects, the Fedora Project does not certify any third-party applications.

Formal ISV certification is available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which shares many of Fedora's features, but is provided on a longer release cycle and is commercially supported for 7 years.


Is there a certification program for hardware that works with Fedora?

Fedora runs on a large variety of hardware, and the list of working hardware is constantly growing larger. Because Fedora improvements occur very rapidly and consistently, including hardware support, a Hardware Compatibility List was deemed too time-consuming and not worthwhile. Alternative methods of tracking working hardware have been suggested, but the consensus is that manually maintaining a complete list is unfeasible.

We are collecting hardware information directly from the users anonymously in a opt-in method, through the smolt project. We are always trying to find ways to improve Fedora's hardware support, and welcome constructive feedback.

A compatibility list is maintained for Red Hat Enterprise Linux at http://bugzilla.redhat.com/hcl. It will closely parallel Fedora's compatibility.

Is the Fedora Project independent of Red Hat, Inc.?

The Fedora Project is a community project, separate from Red Hat, but Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project and provides a great deal of valuable management and resources to the Fedora Project. Red Hat uses the material that the Fedora Project produces to develop its enterprise platform offerings. Red Hat has a strong interest in Fedora, and the success of the Fedora Project has been thanks to the great contributions of Red Hat.

What is the difference between Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux ?

Fedora has the latest and greatest software and new releases every six months. Fedora is the upstream of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Red Hat Enterprise Linux has a conservative release and update cycle and is commercially supported by Red Hat.

Refer to Red Hat Enterprise Linux for more details.

What happened to 'Fedora Core?'

Fedora Project originally had two repositories, Fedora Core and Fedora Extras. Packages in Fedora Core repository was maintained by Red Hat developers and was part of official Fedora media and Fedora Extras was a add-on online repository open to volunteers. As the community around Fedora project grew, technical advantages (packaging guidelines, package review process in Fedora Extras) and limitations (packages in Fedora Core cannot depend on Fedora Extras but only vice versa, Fedora Extras packages were not included in official media) and other non technical advantages (Red Hat developers and community volunteers can work together in a team, no perception of any repository being treated as second class etc) led to a merge of Fedora Core and Fedora Extras into a single repository just before the release of Fedora 7. Since the repositories have merged, Fedora Core is no more. The releases are simply called Fedora.

Why does the tag in my packages say "fc"?

"fc" used to denote "Fedora Core. However after the Fedora 7 release, it has been retroactively renamed to "Fedora Collection" along the lines of GCC which is now "GNU Compiler Collection". From the perspective of version comparisons in RPM, it was easier to adopt a new meaning for c rather than dropping it simply because it refers to the old Core appellation.

Why should I help?

Your name in lights, an online CV, and maybe a trip to a FUDCon.

First, contribute to Fedora and you may get your name in the distribution. Hey, fair is fair.

Second, if you're a Fedora contributor, you don't need a fancy resume; you can just tell potential employers to 'Google' your name.

Third, top Fedora contributors can receive travel stipends to attend the Fedora Users and Developers Conference nearest them. You will have the opportunity to meet some of the giants of the open source movement in person, as their peers and equals.

And last, you'd be playing with this stuff anyway. Spend your time doing stuff that you will enjoy and that others will use. What more incentive do you need? Join us.

I'm interested in contributing to Fedora, where can I get started?

Refer to our join page to learn where help is needed and how to get going. You might also be interested in our Mentors program.

针对 Fedora 贡献人员

哪些新项目的点子最受大家欢迎?

请移步 FedoraBounties

How can I package software for Fedora users? Where can I find information for contributing to Fedora Package Collection?

The Package Maintainers category will point you to all kinds of help.

Where can I find information for contributing to the Fedora Documentation Project?

Some good links for help can be found on the DocsProject page.

哪里还可以找到答案?