Join the package collection maintainers/zh-tw

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你可以訂閱 fedora {{fplist|devel}} 郵遞清單,Fedora 的主要開發討論都在這裡。這是高流量的郵遞清單。
你可以訂閱 fedora {{fplist|devel}} 郵遞清單,Fedora 的主要開發討論都在這裡。這是高流量的郵遞清單。
你可以考慮訂閱 {{fplist|package-announce}} 郵遞清單 -- The commits mailing list gets notifications on all commits in any package in the Fedora repository. This is a very high traffic mailing list. The Fedora package database sends commit mails for packages you (co-)maintain.
你可以考慮訂閱 {{fplist|package-announce}} 郵遞清單 -- 本郵遞清單提供 Fedora 軟體庫中任何軟體包相關的所有提交通知。這是超高流量的郵遞清單。當你是軟體包的維護者 (或共同維護者) 時,若有提交動作,Fedora 軟體包資料庫便會寄送郵件給你。
Another mailing list you might consider (at least to view the archives) is {{fplist|packaging}}. This is the mailing list of the [[Packaging/Committee | Fedora Packaging Committee]], who determine the official packaging guidelines for Fedora projects.
另一個你可以考慮 (至少看看過去的封存內容) 的郵遞清單是 {{fplist|packaging}}。這是 [[Packaging/Committee | Fedora 打包委員會]] 的郵遞清單,他們訂立了 Fedora 專案的官方打包規約。
=== 確認你想要打包的軟體授權方式適當 ===
=== 確認你想要打包的軟體授權方式適當 ===

Revision as of 11:21, 18 May 2013





Join OSDeveloper.png
OS 開發者

如何成為 Fedora 軟體包集合的維護者?

哦,你已決定要成為一位 Fedora 專案中的軟體包維護者?那麼本篇指引會帶你走過第一次提交軟體包的流程。


成為一位 Fedora 軟體包集合的維護者


若你還不知道如何建立 RPM 軟體包,請參考 How_to_create_a_GNU_Hello_RPM_package 教程,或是另一份更深入且有更多細節的 how to create an RPM package

請閱讀 打包規約 軟體包命名規約

你需要對這些規約仔細且澈底的熟悉,因為所有的軟體包都受這些規約規範。如果你有任何問題,請在 Fedora Packaging 郵遞清單上詢問。

建立 Bugzilla 帳號

請先確認你有 Red Hat Bugzilla 的帳號。

你在 bugzilla 帳號中使用的電子郵件位址應該要和你在 Fedora Account System 中使用的相同,而且任何與 Fedora 打包相關的事務都應該使用同個帳號。

如果你已經有 電子郵件位址,請不要使用它!
你不應該在 Bugzilla 中使用你的 電子郵件。如果你用了該帳號,一旦得到他人的支助後便無法取得你的 bugzilla 特別權限。如果你真的很想使用你的 郵件位址,你大概得向 Fedora Infrastructure Ticket System 提出申請,請管理員手動用設定凌駕與你 Fedora 帳號連結的 bugzilla 電子信箱。

建立 Fedora 帳號

Fedora Account System 中建立帳號 (這「不是」bugzilla 帳號)

  1. 請先造訪帳號系統主頁:
  2. 點按「New account」,並填入對應資料。注意,你給的電子郵件應該要與 bugzilla 上申請的郵件相同。這樣系統才可以將相關權力在兩帳號之間相互連接起來。
  3. 在你建立帳號之後,請確認有簽署 CLA (若您點按右上方的「My Account」連結,應該可以看到 CLA: CLA Done)。CLA 是 Contributors License Agreement,代表你身為一位貢獻者,對於本專案相關授權協議同意之書。
  4. 你也需要上傳一份公開的 RSA SSH 金鑰。你需要使用相對應的私人金鑰以透過 SSH 存取 Fedora 機器。你可以前往 此處 閱讀其他相關資料。


你必須訂閱 fedora devel-announce 郵遞清單。這是個低流量的郵遞清單,僅供發布消息之用,重要的開發資訊都會張貼到這裡。

你可以訂閱 fedora devel 郵遞清單,Fedora 的主要開發討論都在這裡。這是高流量的郵遞清單。

你可以考慮訂閱 package-announce 郵遞清單 -- 本郵遞清單提供 Fedora 軟體庫中任何軟體包相關的所有提交通知。這是超高流量的郵遞清單。當你是軟體包的維護者 (或共同維護者) 時,若有提交動作,Fedora 軟體包資料庫便會寄送郵件給你。

另一個你可以考慮 (至少看看過去的封存內容) 的郵遞清單是 packaging。這是 Fedora 打包委員會 的郵遞清單,他們訂立了 Fedora 專案的官方打包規約。


Note that there's other methods for getting sponsored into the packager group than submitting a new package. check the How to get sponsored page for more info.

The package you are submitting can be of any free and open source project that is not already packaged in Fedora. Before creating your package, make sure that the software is not already in the Fedora repository, or waiting for review.


Software components included in Fedora needs to be maintained actively and bugs, especially security issues needs to be fixed in a timely manner. As a Fedora package maintainer, it is your primary responsibility to ensure this. We encourage you to get co-maintainers and seek the help of the Fedora community via the development mailing list whenever needed.


Read some other package submissions to learn about packaging and gain familiarity with the process and requirements.

One way of doing this is to join the package-review mailing list;All comments on Fedora package reviews are sent to this (read-only from your point of view) list.

安裝客戶端工具 (Koji) 並設置你的憑證

To build Packages for the Fedora Collection or EPEL in the Fedora build system you need Koji.

The Package-x-generic-16.pngfedora-packager package provides tools to help you setup and work with fedora; it will bring in everything necessary for general packaging work. Run the following as root:

yum install fedora-packager

After installation run the following as your user (not root) to setup your certificates and koji client configuration:

Certificate Expiration
The certificate this generates will expire after 6 months. Then you have to request another one by re-running fedora-packager-setup. Also every time you request a new certificate, the old one is invalidated and cannot be used anymore.

You can now use "koji" to try to build your RPM packages in the Fedora build system, even on platforms or Fedora versions you don't have. Note that you can (and definitely should) test out builds ("scratch" builds) even before your package has been approved and you have been sponsored. A simple way to do a scratch build using koji is to do this at the command line:

koji build --scratch TARGET path_to_source_RPM


  • TARGET is a distribution keyword such as f17 (for Fedora 17). You can run "koji list-targets" to see all targets. To build for the next release (rawhide), don't use "dist-rawhide" - use "fX" where X is one more than the latest stable or branched release.
  • Note that you need to supply the path to the source RPM (which ends in .src.rpm), and not a URL. (If you only have the spec file, use rpmbuild --nodeps -bs SPECFILE to create the new source RPM).

Your koji builds can only depend on packages that are actually in the TARGET distribution repository. Thus, you can't use koji to build for released distributions if your package depends on other new packages that Bodhi hasn't released yet. You can use koji to build for rawhide (the next unreleased version), even if it depends on other new packages, as long as the other packages were built for the "rawhide" as described below. If you need to build against a package that is not yet a stable released update, you can file a ticket with rel-eng at: and request that that package be added as a buildroot override. For packages in EPEL, you have to use the component epel to get the request to the right persons.

You can learn more about koji via:

koji --help            # General help
koji --help-commands   # list of koji commands
koji COMMAND --help    # help on command COMMAND

Using the Koji build system has more information about using Koji.



Upload your SRPM and SPEC files onto the Internet somewhere so that others can retrieve them. This can be anywhere accessible by a URL, but it is important that the files be directly accessible, not hidden behind some service that makes people wait to download things or redirects through advertising pages. If you are in at least one project group then you can use your storage at for this. If you have not done anything with your account besides set it up and sign the CLA then you can request sufficient access to use fedorapeople space by visiting the sponsors trac instance and filing a ticket in the "Initial package hosting request" component.


Fill out this form:

  • Before submitting your request, be sure there’s not a previous request for the same package. There is a convenient search box on the package review status page.
  • Make sure that you put the name of the package (excluding version and release numbers) in the 'Review Summary' field, along with a very brief summary of what the package is.
  • Put a description of your package (usually, this can be the same thing as what you put in the spec %description) in the 'Review Description' field. Include the URLs to your SRPM and SPEC files.
  • Explain in the ticket that this is your first package and you need a sponsor. Also include any information that may help prospective sponsors. If you've been active in other review work, include links. If you're the upstream maintainer, be sure to say so.
  • For bonus points, include a link to a successful koji build so that everyone knows you did all of your homework.
Make sure that you mention in the 'Review Description' field that this is your first package, and you are seeking a sponsor. In Fedora Package Collection, all new contributors must be sponsored. Some potential sponsors will look at the FE-NEEDSPONSOR bug in bugzilla to find packages to review. You can add your package to this list by editing your review request bug and adding FE-NEEDSPONSOR in the 'Bug xyz blocks' field (where xyz is the bug number for your review request).

The review process is described in detail on the Package Review Process page.


Fedora as a project prefers to stay close to upstream. Inform the developers that you are packaging the software. You can do that by sending them an email introducing yourself and pointing out the review request. This sets up the stage for future conversations. They will usually advertise the fact that their software is now part of Fedora or might want to inform you of important bugs in the existing release, future roadmaps etc.


When a new package maintainer joins the Fedora Project, we request that he/she introduces themselves on the Fedora Devel mailing list. To sign up for the list, visit the devel list's signup page . The primary purpose of this is to begin the process of building trust by learning about the package maintainer and increase the chances of your review request being processed sooner.

The purpose of all this is to break anonymity and foster real-world community within the project. You are under no obligation to reveal personal secrets. The objective is to establish a level of trust with yourself and the other members of the project.

Subject: Self Introduction

Body: Add any information you believe is applicable including past experience, a link to the review request you have filed and a brief description of yourself. You can also post your GPG key information if you want to.


Watch the Bugzilla report for your first package. You should get notifications of changes by email. Fix any blockers that the reviewer(s) point out.


When the package is APPROVED by the reviewer, you must separately obtain member sponsorship in order to check in and build your package. Sponsorship is not automatic and may require that you further participate in other ways in order to demonstrate your understanding of the packaging guidelines. Key to becoming sponsored is to convince an existing sponsor-level member that you understand and follow the project's guidelines and processes.

See how to get sponsored into the packager group for more information on the process of becoming sponsored.

Review and approval for the first package for new packagers must be done by registered sponsors. Subsequent reviews can be done by any package maintainer. Informal reviews can always be done by anyone interested.

Your sponsor can add you to the packager group. You should receive email confirmation of your sponsorship.

將軟體包加入源碼管理 (SCM, Source Code Management) 系統中並設定擁有者

If you are becoming a maintainer for a new package, instead of being a co-maintainer, follow Package SCM admin requests to get a module for your new package and branches for recent releases.

This will be used to set up the proper records in the owners database, which is used for access to build the package, bugzilla population, and other features. This step creates a module in the repository your new package, with branches for each requested distribution.


You could check out your module now, but before doing that, consider doing "mkdir ~/fedora-scm ; cd ~/fedora-scm" - that way, all your files are inside that. Also, run ssh-add, so that you won't have to keep typing in your key password.

Running ssh-add before doing any SCM operations is a very good idea. It will save you from having to type your key password for every operation. You only have to run ssh-add once per session, it will remember it until you log out or reboot. If "ssh-add" reports "Could not open a connection to your authentication agent.", start a new shell under it using "exec ssh-agent bash".

Now you are ready to checkout your module from the SCM:

 fedpkg clone <packagename>

Where <packagename> should be replaced with the name of your package.

Stop (medium size).png
If this step fails, be sure your private ssh key (~/.ssh/id_rsa) mode is set to 0400. You might have to wait for up to an hour after your request for a new git module has been approved to get write access. Make sure your public key is the same as in the Fedora Accounts System (FAS). Key propagation may take an hour or so after uploading into FAS
Note that fedpkg does not set the user config for your new git repo automatically. Make sure to have these set globally or locally in your new repo before you do your first commit (see Configure your global git settings).
Note: If you are not a member of the fedora packager group, you will receive a "permission denied" error. Use the -a flag to clone anonymously.


Refer to Using_Mock_to_test_package_builds and Using_the_Koji_build_system#Scratch_Builds for more information on testing your package. Mock uses your local system while Koji command line tool uses the Fedora build system server.


Now that you've checked out your (empty) package module with fedpkg, cd into the module's master branch:

cd <packagename>

Run fedpkg to import the contents of the SRPM into the SCM:

fedpkg import PATH_TO_SRPM
# Review Changes, press 'q' to stop; Revert with: git reset --hard HEAD
git commit -m "Initial import (#XXXXXX)."
git push
fedpkg build

Obviously, replace PATH_TO_SRPM with the full path (not URL) to your approved SRPM, and XXXXXX with the package review bug number.

This imports into, commits, and builds only the master (rawhide) branch.

If the commit fails with this kind of message:

W access for why DENIED to YOUR_ACCOUNT
fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
Could not push: Command '['git', 'push']' returned non-zero exit status 128

Then you don't have the necessary rights to modify that package branch; view to request those rights.

更新你的分支 (如果想要的話)

Branches are f# (formerly F-# and before that FC-#), master, etc. So f25 is the branch for Fedora 25.

To switch to a branch first:

fedpkg switch-branch BRANCH (e.g. f25)

Merge the initial commit from master, creating an identical commit in the branch:

git merge master

Push the changes to the server:

git push

Build the package:

fedpkg build

If there is another branch to work with repeat "To switch to a branch" and import and commit to each branch

Be sure that you build for rawhide (master) branch before pushing updates for any other branches! Otherwise, those updates will get inherited into rawhide, which is almost certainly not what you want.
Sync to buildsys is an hourly thing. So, sometimes you might have to wait for an hour to get access of the build server to give "fedpkg build"

If everything goes well, it should queue up your branch for building, the package will cleanly build, and you're done!

If it fails to build, the build system will send you an email to report the failure and show you to the logs. Commit any needed changes to git, bump the SPEC release number, and request a new build.

在 Bodhi 提交軟體包更新

The Fedora update system called Bodhi is used for pushing updates, classifying packages etc. Do not submit "master" (aka rawhide) packages via bodhi.

You can push an update using Bodhi via the command line using this in each branch:

 fedpkg update

You can also use "bodhi" command directly as described in the Bodhi Instruction.

You can also use the Web interface for Bodhi to request enhancement updates for each released Fedora you are bringing a new package to.

The first field asks for the name of the "Package". This field will auto-complete the package name found in the Koji build system, e.g. <package-name>-<version>-<release>.fc25. If completion doesn't work, just enter the package build name yourself.

For new packages, choose "newpackage" as the "type" of update.

Put the "Request" as "testing" if you want to put the package through testing first, see Fedora Quality Assurance . Put "stable" if you want to push the package directly to stable.

For new packages, put the bug number of the package's Review Request in the "Bugs" field blank. Bodhi will automatically close it as NEXTRELEASE when it gets pushed to the requested update status.

For new packages, add a copy of the package's description in the "Notes" section, so end users will know what the package is.

Here is the Bodhi Instruction.

After you have submitted an upgrade through bodhi, your package is placed in a queue. Periodically, an administrator will check the queue and push all of the packages into the appropriate repositories.


If appropriate for the package, make it available in "comps" files so that it can be selected during installation and included in yum's package group operations. See How to use and edit comps.xml for package groups for more info.


Fedora has infrastructure available for monitoring new upstream releases of the software you are packaging. Refer to Upstream Release Monitoring for more details. Learn to handle updates by reading the Package update HOWTO


We know that this process can be as clear as mud sometimes, and we're always trying to make it better. If you run into any problems, or have any questions, please ask on the devel mailing list or in #fedora-devel[?] on

The Fedora Mentors Project has people willing to help new contributors in their packaging efforts. See the Mentors page for more information.

See also using git FAQ for package maintainers.

若你已是維護者且還想要製作新的軟體包推入 Fedora 軟體包集合

If you already maintain a package in Fedora and want to maintain another, follow the new package process for existing contributors .