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= Packaging Guidelines for MinGW Windows cross-compiler =
{{admon/important|Future Changes|These guidelines apply to all active Fedora releases (including RHEL-6 and older). New guidelines for MinGW have been approved, but are not yet in use: [[Packaging:MinGW_Future]] }}
= Introduction =
The Fedora MinGW project's mission is to provide an excellent
development environment for Fedora users who wish to cross-compile
their programs to run on Windows, minimizing the need to use Windows
at all.  In the past developers have had to port and compile all of
the libraries and tools they have needed, and this huge effort has
happened independently many times over.  We aim to eliminate
duplication of work for application developers by providing a range of
libraries and development tools which have already been ported to the
cross-compiler environment.  This means that developers will not need
to recompile the application stack themselves, but can concentrate
just on the changes needed to their own application.
= Track Fedora native package versions =
In general terms, MinGW packages which provide cross-compiled versions
of packages already natively available in Fedora, should follow the
native Fedora package as closely as possible.  This means they should
stay at the same version, include all the same patches as the native
Fedora package, and be built with the same configuration options.
The MinGW SIG have written an RPM comparison tool which makes it
possible to compare MinGW packages with the Fedora native packages, in
order to determine whether versions, patches and configuration are
= Follow Fedora policy =
MinGW packages must follow Fedora policy, except where noted in this
document.  MinGW packages go through the same review process, CVS
admin process etc as other Fedora packages.
= Package naming =
Built packages should be named by prefixing the upstream package name
with <code>mingw32-</code>
Source packages can be named starting with <code>mingw-</code> in order to more easily support a transition to the new MinGW guidelines which mandate that naming.  Otherwise two separate package repositories must be set up ("mingw32-foo" and "mingw-foo") with one needing to be marked EOL.
= Base packages =
The base packages provide a root filesystem, base libraries, binutils
(basic programs like 'strip', 'ld' etc), the compiler (gcc) and the
Win32 API.  Packages may need to depend on one or more of these.  In
particular, almost any conceivable package should depend on
<code>mingw32-filesystem</code> and <code>mingw32-runtime</code>.
| <code>mingw32-filesystem</code> || Core filesystem directory layout, and RPM macros for spec files.  Equivalent to 'filesystem' RPM
| <code>mingw32-runtime</code> || Base libraries for core MinGW runtime & development environment.  Equivalent to glibc & glibc-devel RPMs
| <code>mingw32-binutils</code> || Cross-compiled binutils (utilities like 'strip', 'as', 'ld') which understand Windows executables and DLLs.  Equivalent to 'binutils' RPM
| <code>mingw32-w32api</code> || Win32 API.  A [ free (public domain) reimplementation] of the header files required to link to the Win32 API.  No direct equivalent in base Fedora - glibc-devel is closest
| <code>mingw32-gcc</code> || GNU compiler collection.  Compilers for C and C++ which cross-compile to a Windows target.  Equivalent to gcc RPM
= Filesystem layout =
  +- etc
  |  |
  |  +- rpm
  |      |
  |      +- macros.mingw32
  +- usr
      +- bin  - Links to cross compiler toolchain
      |  |
      |  +- i686-pc-mingw32-cpp
      |  +- i686-pc-mingw32-gcc
      |  +- i686-pc-mingw32-g++
      |  +- ... etc..
      +- lib
      |  |
      |  +- rpm
      |      |
      |      +- mingw32-defs  - custom helper scripts for auto-requires, binary stripping, etc
      |      +- - extra DLL names
      |      +- - discover required DLL names
      +- i686-pc-mingw32  - root of mingw toolchain and binaries - see next diagram
  +- bin  - Cross compiler toolchain 
  |  |
  |  +- cpp
  |  +- gcc
  |  +- g++
  |  +- ... etc ...
  +- lib  - Cross compiler toolchain support libraries / files
  +- sys-root  - root for cross compiled binaries
      +- mingw
          +- bin    - cross-compiled binaries & runtime DLL parts
          +- doc    - documentation
          +- include - include files for cross compiled libs
          +- lib    - cross-compiled static libraries & linktime DLL parts
          |  |
          |  +- pkgconfig  - pkg-config definitions for libraries
          +- share
              +- man
= Filenames of the cross-compilers and binutils =
The cross-compilers and binutils are Fedora binaries and are therefore
placed in <code>%{_bindir}</code> (ie. <code>/usr/bin</code>)
according to the FHS and Fedora guidelines.
The cross-compilers and binutils which generate i686 binaries for Windows are named:
The same binaries are present in
<code>%{_prefix}/i686-pc-mingw32/bin</code> without any prefix in the
name, ie:
= Naming of the root filesystem =
The root filesystem contains Windows executables and DLLs and any other Windows-only
files.  It is necessary both because we need to store Windows libraries in order to
link further libraries which depend on them, and also because MinGW requires a
root filesystem location.  The location (for i686 target) is provided by the macro:
%{_mingw32_sysroot}  %{_prefix}/i686-pc-mingw32/sys-root
= Standard mingw RPM macros =
The <code>mingw32-filesystem</code> package provides a number of
convenience macros for the cross compiled sysroot directories, and
toolchain. It is mandatory to use these macros in all MinGW packages
submitted to Fedora.
== Toolchain macros ==
The following macros are for the %build and %install section of the spec
| _mingw32_ar || i686-pc-mingw32-ar || cross compiler 'ar' binary
| _mingw32_cc || i686-pc-mingw32-gcc || cross compiler 'gcc' binary
| _mingw32_cflags || -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 ||
| _mingw32_configure || CC="%{_mingw32_cc}"  CFLAGS="%{_mingw32_cflags}"  ./configure  --build=%_build --host=%{_mingw32_host} --target=%{_mingw32_target}  --prefix=%{_mingw32_prefix} || standard invocation for autotools 'configure' scripts
| _mingw32_cpp || i686-pc-mingw32-gcc -E || cross compiler 'cpp' binary
| _mingw32_host || i686-pc-mingw32  || Host platform for build
| _mingw32_objdump || i686-pc-mingw32-objdump || cross compiler 'objdump' binary
| _mingw32_ranlib || i686-pc-mingw32-ranlib || cross compiler 'ranlib' binary
| _mingw32_strip || i686-pc-mingw32-strip || cross compiler 'strip' binary
| _mingw32_target || i686-pc-mingw32 || Target platform for build
== Filesystem location macros ==
The following macros are for use in %build, %install and %files sections of the RPM spec
|_mingw32_bindir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/bin || Location of Windows executables.
|_mingw32_datadir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/share || Shared data used under Windows.
|_mingw32_docdir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/share/doc || Documentation.
|_mingw32_infodir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/share/info || Info files (see note below).
|_mingw32_includedir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/include || Header files used when cross-compiling for Windows.
|_mingw32_libdir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/lib || Windows libraries (see sections below).
|_mingw32_libexecdir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/libexec ||
|_mingw32_mandir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/share/man || Man pages (see note below).
|_mingw32_prefix || %{_mingw32_sysroot}/mingw || Windows equivalent of %{_prefix}, required by MinGW.
|_mingw32_sbindir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/sbin ||
|_mingw32_sysconfdir || %{_mingw32_prefix}/etc || Configuration files used when running under Windows.
|_mingw32_sysroot || %{_prefix}/i686-pc-mingw32/sys-root || Windows system root.
= Dependencies =
If a package contains binaries which depend on a DLL provided by
another package, these dependencies should be expressed in the form:
where <code>foo.dll</code> is the name of the DLL.  The name must be
converted to lowercase because Windows binaries contain case
insensitive dependencies.
All packages should depend on <code>mingw32-filesystem</code>.
Correct dependency generation is done automatically.  Packagers should
include these lines in all library packages:
%global _use_internal_dependency_generator 0
%global __find_requires %{_mingw32_findrequires}
%global __find_provides %{_mingw32_findprovides}
All specfiles should BuildRequire at least:
BuildRequires:  mingw32-filesystem >= minimum-version
and any other BuildRequires that they need.
= Build architecture =
All packages should have:
BuildArch: noarch
unless they contain Fedora native executables.
= Libraries (DLLs) =
All libraries must be built as DLLs.
Because of the peculiarity of Windows, DLLs are stored in the
<code>%{_mingw32_bindir}</code> directory, along with a control file in
the <code>%{_mingw32_libdir}</code> directory.  For example, for a
library called <code>foo</code> there would be:
All files are required in those locations in order to link
successfully, except that the <code>.def</code> file is not always
built by libtool for reasons unknown, and the <code>.dll</code> may
contain a version number although not always
(eg. <code>foo-0.dll</code>).
== Do not use %{_mingw32_bindir}/* or %{_mingw32_libdir}/* in %files section ==
The <code>%files</code> section must list DLLs separately.  Packages
must NOT use <code>%{_mingw32_bindir}/*</code> or
The reason for this is that libtool is very fragile and will give up
on building a DLL very easily.  Therefore we force the name of the DLL
to be listed explicitly in the <code>%files</code> section in order to
catch this during RPM builds.
== Manpages and info files ==
If manpages or info files are simply duplicates of equivalent
documentation found in Fedora native packages, then they should not be
packaged in the MinGW package.
== Static libraries ==
In accordance with ordinary Fedora policy, static libraries should not
be built, and if they are then they should be placed in a
<code>-static</code> subpackage.
The exception is the base package <code>mingw32-w32api</code> which
contains static libraries that are required for GCC to create
== Stripping ==
Libraries and executables should be stripped.  This is done correctly
and automatically if the spec file includes these lines:
%global __strip %{_mingw32_strip}
%global __objdump %{_mingw32_objdump}
(Note that if __strip and __objdump are not overridden in the specfile
then this can sometimes cause Windows binaries to be corrupted).
== Example Specfile ==
%global __strip %{_mingw32_strip}
%global __objdump %{_mingw32_objdump}
%global _use_internal_dependency_generator 0
%global __find_requires %{_mingw32_findrequires}
%global __find_provides %{_mingw32_findprovides}
%define __debug_install_post %{_mingw32_debug_install_post}
Name:          mingw-example
Version:        1.2.3
Release:        1%{?dist}
License:        LGPLv2+
Group:          Development/Libraries
BuildArch:      noarch
BuildRequires:  mingw32-filesystem
BuildRequires:  mingw32-gcc
BuildRequires:  mingw32-binutils
# Any additional BuildRequires.
# description
%package -n mingw32-example
%description -n mingw32-example
# description
%setup -q -n example-%{version}
make %{?_smp_mflags}
# Remove static libraries but DON'T remove *.dll.a files.
rm $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_mingw32_libdir}/libfoo.a
%files -n mingw32-example
# etc.
* Wed Sep 10 2008 Richard W.M. Jones <> - 1.2.3-1
- Initial RPM release.
[[Category:Packaging guidelines]]

Revision as of 17:38, 6 June 2012