- 1 Connectivity
- 2 DNS configuration
The following table lists basic IPv4 connectivity configurations. There are numerous less common configuration including a combination of public and private addresses and multiple public addresses.
|Global||yes||no||no||yes||Host is connected to the Internet using a public address.|
|Masqueraded||no||yes||no||yes||Host can use services on the Internet using a masqueraded private address.|
|Local||no||yes||no||yes||Host can use local services using a private address.|
|Link-local||no||no||yes||yes||Host can use services in the broadcast domain using a link-local address (IPv4LL).|
|None||no||no||no||yes||Host has only a loopback address.|
The following table lists basic IPv6 connectivity configurations. There are numerous less common configuration including a combination of public and ULA addresses or public or ULA address without a link-local one.
|Global||yes||no||yes||yes||Host has at least one link-local address and one global address, the latter being used for global connectivity.|
|Local||no||yes||yes||yes||Host has at least one link-local address and one unique local address (ULA) used for local communication.|
|Link-local||no||no||yes||yes||Host has only link-local (IPv6LL) and loopback addresses.|
|None||no||no||no||yes||Host has only a loopback address.|
|Disabled||no||no||no||no||IPv6 has been disabled in the kernel.|
The following table lists common or somehow interesting combinations of IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity.
|IPv4 \ IPv6||Global||Local||Link-local||None||Disabled|
|Global||Dual-stack server||IPv4 server|
|Masqueraded||Dual-stack workstation||IPv4 workstation||IPv4/PPP workstation||Disabled IPv6 workstation|
|Link-local||Dual-stack zeroconf||IPv4 zeroconf|
|None||IPv6 node||IPv6 zeroconf||Isolated node|
The following table provides details for selected combinations from the previous table.
|Dual-stack server||Server available on public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.|
|Dual-stack workstation||Workstation connecting via both IPv4 and IPv6 internet services.|
|IPv4 server||Server available on IPv4 with IPv6 limited to link-local and loopback communication.|
|IPv4 workstation||Workstation connecting via IPv4 with IPv6 limited to link-local and loopback communication.|
|IPv4/PPP workstation||Mobile workstation connecting via IPv4 with IPv6 limited to loopback communication as IPv4-only PPP won't assign IPv6LL.|
|Disabled IPv6||Workstation connecting via IPv4 with IPv6 disabled in the kernel.|
|IPv6 node||Server available on public IPv6 address with IPv4 limited to loopback communication.|
|Private network||Workstation or server on an isolated private network using IPv4 private addresses and IPv6 ULA for local communication.|
|Dual-stack zeroconf||Workstation or appliance in a zero configuration network after a failed DHCPv4 attempt.|
|IPv6 zeroconf||Workstation or appliance in a zero configuration network on a system with IPv4LL disabled.|
|IPv4 zeroconf||Old-school node in a zero configuration network.|
|Isolated node||Disconnected node limited to loopback IPv4 and IPv6 communication.|
How to get connectivity for everyday use
Most home and office setups offer masqueraded IPv4 connectivity. In addition they often offer global IPv6 connectivity, often firewalled. Some corporate setups, on the other hand, don't offer connectivity to remote hosts except via a proxy server. Global and unmasqueraded IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity for servers is typically available in datacenters.
IPv4 and IPv6 loopback addresses are assigned automatically at boot time. IPv6 link-local addresses are specific in that they are automatically assigned by the kernel when an interface gets connected to a network on the link layer. On the other hand, IPv4 link-local addresses only serve as a fallback for unsuccessful DHCPv4 attempt.
Note: It looks like link-local IPv4 addresses never get automatically configured in default Fedora 23 Workstation with NetworkManager. This is not necessarily a problem as it is much better to rely on ubiquitous IPv6 link-local addresses nowadays.
Many networks still only have IPv4 connectivity. You can overcome this limitation by configuring an IPv6 tunnel to a network with IPv6 connectivity. You can use various tunnel technologies to achieve that. There are also services like http://www.tunnelbroker.net/ that offer free tunnelled connectivity with IPv6 subnets.
How to emulate connectivity in a virtual test environment
Using two virtual machines, one can emulate any type of IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity by picking up an address block intended for documentation and testing (
2001:DB8::/32) and setting up DHCPv4, RA, DHCPv6 and DNS services on one of the virtual machines, while using the other as a client node.
Server always needs to have a valid static configuration. For simple testing, you can configure the server temporarily using iproute package.
# ip address add 192.0.2.1/24 dev eth1 # ip address add 2001:db8::1/64 dev eth1
The easiest way to provide a testing IPv4 and IPv6 configuration server together with a local DNS server is using dnsmasq. The command bellow can be easily transformed into permanent configuration in
# dnsmasq -d \ --dhcp-range=lan,192.0.2.100,192.0.2.200,10m \ --enable-ra --dhcp-range=lan,2001:db8::1:0,2001:db8::2:0,10m
A proper workstation installation will get configured automatically.
On the other hand you can test the server configuration using dhcpcd command from the dhcpcd package. Use the following command. If you leave out
-T option, dhcpcd would configure kernel and
/etc/resolv.conf using the information from the server.
# dhcpcd -d -T eth0
Notes on connectivity checks
Network application behavior may change based on various connectivity checks. Some of them work with IP addresses, some with routes and some are even based on attempting connections. All of the mentioned types of checks are currently present in glibc name resolution code, so you need to be careful about subtle differences in configuration.
A dual-stack server is announced in DNS by at least one A record and at least one AAAA record. IPv4 only and IPv6 only servers have only A record or AAAA record respectively. Configurations with multiple A and AAAA records are interesting as well and so are configurations with SRV and other intermediate records.
- The server must have a known host name
- Authoritative DNS servers must provide the right A/AAAA records
- They should be accessible over both IPv4 and IPv6
- Recursive DNS server must be able to get the records
- Local host must be able to query it and get all the records
Possible reactions to DNS requests:
|Reply type||DNS rcode||Meaning||Details|
|DNS||NOERROR||Data||Reply with one or more records of the requested type.|
|DNS||NXDOMAIN||No such domain||Reply saying that there are no records at all for the domain name.|
|DNS||NODATA||No data||Reply saying that there are records for the domain name but not of the requested type.|
|ICMP||–||Destination unreachable||The server isn't available for communication.|
|–||–||No reply at all||The server failed to reply or the reply was dropped on the firewall.|
The test environment often requires a local recursive and authoritative DNS server. In most cases a dnsmasq instance or any other forwarding nameserver with some authoritative capabilities will do the job. For testing, domains can be chosen under
DNS server accessibility
Domain name servers serve different roles. Authoritative servers provide zone data configured by service administrators. Recursive servers retrieve zone data from authoritative servers on behalf of the clients.
Recursive servers are part of the client infrastructure. In a dual-stack network they need to be be available on both IPv4 and IPv6 to also serve single-stack clients using any of the protocols and addresses for both protocols should be announced using automatic configuration protocols. In setups with additinal forwarding DNS servers that do not perform full recursion this applies to those DNS servers that actually serve clients.
|Dual-stack||IPv4 only||IPv6 only||IPv4||IPv6|
|yes||no||no||at least one of them|
Authoritative servers are part of the service infrastructure. For dual-stack services they need to be available on both protocols in order to serve single-stack recursive DNS servers. For single-stack services they need to be available on the respective protocol.
|Service connectivity||DNS records||Authoritative DNS|
All packages providing a DNS server should listen on both protocols by default.
Testing with netresolve:
$ netresolve --node server.example.net --protocol raw
Dual-stack server with SRV record
srv-host=_http._tcp.example.net,server.example.net,80,10,10 address=/server.example.net/192.0.2.1 address=/server.example.net/2001:DB8::1
Testing with netresolve:
$ netresolve --srv --node example.net --service http --protocol tcp
No answer to DNS requests
Under normal circumstances each request is followed by a DNS reply or ICMP error packet. Failure to deliver any reply at all usually implies a misconfigured firewall dropping all DNS packets for a given protocol.
This can be easily simulated using the local firewall, see below.
# iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 53 -j DROP # iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 53 -j DROP # ip6tables -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 53 -j DROP # ip6tables -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 53 -j DROP
No answer to DNS AAAA requests
This issue is unique because of the selective nature of answer absence. The local resolver typically receives answers for all DNS requests except those asking for AAAA records due to a bug in the authoritative server or any DNS server on the way from the local resolver.
This issue is not so easy to simulate as you would have to selectively drop DNS AAAA packets. Possible solutions are through delegating the firewall to userspace or using pcap.
TODO: Provide a mechanism to drop DNS AAAA packets, possibly using pcap or broken-dns-proxy.
Note: A theoretical issue with dropped DNS A records hasn't been observed in the wild.