Using UEFI with QEMU

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= Firmware installation =
  
= Testing secureboot with KVM =
+
== Installing 'UEFI for QEMU' nightly builds ==
  
This page documents how to test Fedora 18 [[Secureboot]] support inside
+
UEFI for x86 QEMU/KVM VMs is called OVMF (Open Virtual Machine Firmware). It comes
a KVM VM. The audience here is QA folks that want to test secureboot, and
+
any other curious parties.
+
 
+
== Install OVMF ==
+
 
+
OVMF (Open Virtual Machine Firmware) is basically UEFI for KVM. It comes
+
 
from EDK2 (EFI Development Kit), which is the UEFI reference implementation.
 
from EDK2 (EFI Development Kit), which is the UEFI reference implementation.
  
 
Unfortunately there are licensing issues which prevent us getting EDK2/OVMF
 
Unfortunately there are licensing issues which prevent us getting EDK2/OVMF
into Fedora (see [[#EDK2 Licensing Issues]] at the end of this document for more info). So we
+
into Fedora (see [[#EDK2 Licensing Issues]] for more info). So we
have to grab external packages:
+
have to grab external packages.
  
  sudo rpm -ivh http://fedorapeople.org/~crobinso/secureboot/edk2.manual-0-0.20130221.944c84a6.x86_64.rpm
+
Gerd Hoffmann, Red Hatter and QEMU developer, has a [[dnf]] repo on his personal
 +
site that provides nightly builds of a whole bunch of QEMU/KVM firmware,
 +
including EDK2/OVMF.
  
== Install an F18 VM with UEFI ==
+
Here's how to pull down the nightly builds for x86:
  
First we need to install a guest using UEFI instead of traditional bios.
+
  sudo dnf install dnf-plugins-core
Anaconda will put all the right bits in place for us. You can probably
+
  sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo http://www.kraxel.org/repos/firmware.repo
convert an existing bios guest to use UEFI but I haven't found steps to do
+
  sudo dnf install edk2.git-ovmf-x64
so.
+
  
I recommend using a DVD, network installs seem to be sloooow using OVMF:
+
Note, these are nightly builds, and may occasionally be broken.
  
  sudo virt-install --name f18-uefi --ram 2048 --boot loader=/usr/share/edk2.manual/ovmf-x64/OVMF-pure-efi.fd --disk /var/lib/libvirt/images/f18-uefi.qcow,format=qcow2,size=10 --os-variant fedora18 --cdrom /path/to/Fedora-18-x86_64-DVD.iso
+
== Optionally Configure libvirtd to advertise UEFI support ==
  
Follow the install to completion, log in and do firstboot, then move along.
+
Libvirt needs to know about UEFI->NVRAM config file mapping, so it can advertise it to tools like virt-manager/virt-install. On Fedora 22 and later, libvirt packages are configured to look for the nightly build paths, so this will work out of the box.
Secure boot isn't set up yet.
+
 
 +
However, if you want to use custom binaries, you will need to edit the <b>nvram</b> variable in <b>/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf</b> and restart libvirtd.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Creating a VM =
 +
 
 +
== virt-manager ==
 +
 
 +
Create a new VM in virt-manager. When you get to the final page of the 'New VM' wizard, do the following:
 +
 
 +
* Click 'Customize before install', then select 'Finish'
 +
* On the 'Overview' screen, Change the 'Firmware' field to select the 'UEFI x86_64' option.
 +
* Click 'Begin Installation'
 +
* The boot screen you'll see should use <code>linuxefi</code> commands to boot the installer, and you should be able to run <code>efibootmgr</code> inside that system, to verify that you're running an UEFI OS.
 +
 
 +
== virt-install ==
 +
 
 +
Add <code>--boot uefi</code> to your <code>virt-install</code> command. Example:
 +
 
 +
  sudo virt-install --name f20-uefi \
 +
    --ram 2048 --disk size=20 \
 +
    --boot uefi \
 +
    --location https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/22/Workstation/x86_64/os/
 +
 
 +
= Testing Secureboot in a VM =
 +
 
 +
These steps describe how to test Fedora [[Secureboot]] support inside a KVM VM. The audience here is QA folks that want to test secureboot, and
 +
any other curious parties. This requires configuring the VM to use UEFI, so it builds upon the previous UEFI steps.
  
 
== Grab LockDown_ms.efi ==
 
== Grab LockDown_ms.efi ==
Line 35: Line 58:
 
Since OVMF doesn't ship with any SecureBoot keys installed, we need to
 
Since OVMF doesn't ship with any SecureBoot keys installed, we need to
 
install some to mimic what an MS certified UEFI machine will ship with.
 
install some to mimic what an MS certified UEFI machine will ship with.
But here's a crappy thing about OVMF and KVM: right now there's no way to
 
persist UEFI config across VM start/stop. {{admon/note|Improvements in Fedora 20|
 
With qemu 1.6 and later, a ''-pflash bios.bin'' option, is supposed to enable persistent EFI variables.  This may or may not also require ''-no-kvm''.}}
 
So if we want to test SecureBoot,
 
we need to install the MS keys and enable secureboot on every VM restart.
 
 
 
Luckily there's a tool that does all this for us, called LockDown_ms.efi.
 
Luckily there's a tool that does all this for us, called LockDown_ms.efi.
 
This is derived from code in [http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/jejb/efitools.git;a=summary efitools.git].
 
This is derived from code in [http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/jejb/efitools.git;a=summary efitools.git].
Line 48: Line 65:
 
   sudo wget http://fedorapeople.org/~crobinso/secureboot/LockDown_ms.efi -O /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/LockDown_ms.efi
 
   sudo wget http://fedorapeople.org/~crobinso/secureboot/LockDown_ms.efi -O /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/LockDown_ms.efi
  
== Enable SecureBoot and verify it's all working ==
+
Now we need to enroll the keys in UEFI.
  
As mentioned above, this needs to be done on every VM boot.
+
* Reboot the VM
 +
* When the TianoCore splash screen pops up, hit ESC
 +
* Select 'Boot Manager'
 +
* Select 'EFI Internal Shell'
 +
* Hit ESC to skip startup.nsh, or wait for the 5 second timeout.
 +
* Shell> fs0:
 +
* FS0:\> \EFI\fedora\LockDown_ms.efi
 +
* FS0:\> reset
 +
* The VM will restart. Let it boot into Fedora as normal. Log in
 +
* You should see the string 'Secure boot enabled' in dmesg. Secureboot is now enabled for every subsequent boot.
  
# Wait until the TianoCore splash screen pops up, hit ESC
+
== Testing Fedora CD/DVD Secure Boot in a VM ==
# Select 'Boot Manager'
+
# Select 'EFI Internal Shell'
+
# <code>Shell> fs0:</code>
+
# <code>fs0:\> \EFI\fedora\LockDown_ms.efi </code>
+
# <code>fs0:\> \EFI\fedora\shim.efi </code>
+
# Guest boots, log in, should see 'Secure boot enabled' in dmesg
+
  
 +
Once you have a secureboot configured VM as described above, it's easy to use this to test ISO media secureboot support.
  
= Misc bits =
+
* Use virt-manager to attach the ISO media to your VM
 +
* Use virt-manager to change the VM boot settings to boot off the CDROM
 +
* Start the VM
 +
* Switch to a terminal inside the VM, verify Secureboot is enabled by checking dmesg
 +
 
 +
= Notes =
  
 
== EDK2 Licensing Issues ==
 
== EDK2 Licensing Issues ==
Line 68: Line 94:
 
make it not acceptable for packaging in Fedora. Particularly that there's
 
make it not acceptable for packaging in Fedora. Particularly that there's
 
a usage restricition only allowing the code to be used in a UEFI
 
a usage restricition only allowing the code to be used in a UEFI
implementation. More details here at [http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/tianocore/index.php?title=Edk2-fat-driver Edk2-fat-driver]
+
implementation. More details here at [http://tianocore.sourceforge.net/wiki/Edk2-fat-driver Edk2-fat-driver]
  
 
The driver is critical functionality so removing it is not an option.
 
The driver is critical functionality so removing it is not an option.
  
== Running EDK2 nightly builds ==
+
== Using UEFI with AArch64 VMs ==
  
Gerd Hoffman, Red Hatter and QEMU developer, has a yum repo on his personal
+
[[Architectures/ARM/AArch64|Fedora's AArch64 releases]] will only run on UEFI, so require UEFI inside the VM. However the steps are slightly different. See this page for complete documentation: https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Architectures/AArch64/Install_with_QEMU
site that provides nightly builds of a whole bunch of QEMU/KVM firmware,
+
including EDK2/OVMF.
+
  
Currently though, latest OVMF broke F18 SecureBoot: running the above steps
+
= Extra links =
will give the following error when trying to boot shim.efi:
+
 
+
  Error reported: Security Violation
+
 
+
There's a fix in upstream <code>pesign</code>, but as of this writing, shim
+
in F18 hasn't been regenerated to pick up the fix.
+
 
+
Regardless, here's how to pull down the nightly builds:
+
 
+
  sudo wget http://www.kraxel.org/repos/firmware.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/firmware.repo
+
 
+
  # Disable by default, likely preferred for QA
+
  sudo sed -i -e "s/enabled=1/enabled=0/g" /etc/yum.repos.d/firmware.repo
+
  sudo yum --enablerepo=qemu-firmware-jenkins install edk2.git-ovmf-x64
+
 
+
The OVMF image is at:
+
 
+
  /usr/share/edk2.git/ovmf-x64/OVMF-pure-efi.fd
+
 
+
== Pointing an existing guest at OVMF ==
+
 
+
To alter an existing guest to use OVMF, or change the OVMF build it uses, do
+
<code>sudo virsh edit $vmname</code> and add
+
 
+
  <domain>
+
    ...
+
    <os>
+
    ...
+
      <loader>/path/to/OVMF-pure-efi.fd</loader>
+
 
+
== Testing F18 DVD Secure Boot in a VM ==
+
 
+
Since we can't easily alter the DVD to add LockDown_ms.efi, we get it into
+
the VM using a mini disk image:
+
 
+
  wget http://fedorapeople.org/~crobinso/secureboot/lockdown.qcow2
+
  sudo virsh attach-disk $VMNAME --target hdb --source lockdown.qcow2 --subdriver qcow2 --config
+
 
+
Then do
+
 
+
* Launch the VM, drop to the EFI shell
+
* If your guest only has a CDROM attached, lockdown.qcow2 should be fs0
+
* <code>Shell> fs0:</code>
+
* <code>fs0:\> LockDown_ms.efi </code>
+
* <code>fs0:\> exit </code>
+
* Back in the config screen, Select 'Boot Manager'
+
* Select 'EFI DVD/CDROM'
+
* Once anaconda starts, grab shell, log in, verify secure boot is enabled
+
 
+
== Extra links ==
+
  
 +
* [[QA:Testcase Virtualization UEFI]]
 +
* [http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/OVMF KVM wiki OVMF page]
 
* [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/SecurityTeam/SecureBoot Ubuntu secureboot page]
 
* [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/SecurityTeam/SecureBoot Ubuntu secureboot page]
 
* [http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:UEFI_Secure_boot_using_qemu-kvm OpenSUSE secureboot page]
 
* [http://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:UEFI_Secure_boot_using_qemu-kvm OpenSUSE secureboot page]
* [http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/OVMF KVM wiki OVMF page]
 
  
 
[[Category:Virtualization]] [[Category:QA]]
 
[[Category:Virtualization]] [[Category:QA]]

Latest revision as of 20:05, 2 January 2016

Contents

[edit] Firmware installation

[edit] Installing 'UEFI for QEMU' nightly builds

UEFI for x86 QEMU/KVM VMs is called OVMF (Open Virtual Machine Firmware). It comes from EDK2 (EFI Development Kit), which is the UEFI reference implementation.

Unfortunately there are licensing issues which prevent us getting EDK2/OVMF into Fedora (see #EDK2 Licensing Issues for more info). So we have to grab external packages.

Gerd Hoffmann, Red Hatter and QEMU developer, has a dnf repo on his personal site that provides nightly builds of a whole bunch of QEMU/KVM firmware, including EDK2/OVMF.

Here's how to pull down the nightly builds for x86:

 sudo dnf install dnf-plugins-core
 sudo dnf config-manager --add-repo http://www.kraxel.org/repos/firmware.repo
 sudo dnf install edk2.git-ovmf-x64

Note, these are nightly builds, and may occasionally be broken.

[edit] Optionally Configure libvirtd to advertise UEFI support

Libvirt needs to know about UEFI->NVRAM config file mapping, so it can advertise it to tools like virt-manager/virt-install. On Fedora 22 and later, libvirt packages are configured to look for the nightly build paths, so this will work out of the box.

However, if you want to use custom binaries, you will need to edit the nvram variable in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf and restart libvirtd.


[edit] Creating a VM

[edit] virt-manager

Create a new VM in virt-manager. When you get to the final page of the 'New VM' wizard, do the following:

  • Click 'Customize before install', then select 'Finish'
  • On the 'Overview' screen, Change the 'Firmware' field to select the 'UEFI x86_64' option.
  • Click 'Begin Installation'
  • The boot screen you'll see should use linuxefi commands to boot the installer, and you should be able to run efibootmgr inside that system, to verify that you're running an UEFI OS.

[edit] virt-install

Add --boot uefi to your virt-install command. Example:

 sudo virt-install --name f20-uefi \
   --ram 2048 --disk size=20 \
   --boot uefi \
   --location https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/22/Workstation/x86_64/os/

[edit] Testing Secureboot in a VM

These steps describe how to test Fedora Secureboot support inside a KVM VM. The audience here is QA folks that want to test secureboot, and any other curious parties. This requires configuring the VM to use UEFI, so it builds upon the previous UEFI steps.

[edit] Grab LockDown_ms.efi

Since OVMF doesn't ship with any SecureBoot keys installed, we need to install some to mimic what an MS certified UEFI machine will ship with. Luckily there's a tool that does all this for us, called LockDown_ms.efi. This is derived from code in efitools.git.

Inside the guest, do:

 sudo wget http://fedorapeople.org/~crobinso/secureboot/LockDown_ms.efi -O /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/LockDown_ms.efi

Now we need to enroll the keys in UEFI.

  • Reboot the VM
  • When the TianoCore splash screen pops up, hit ESC
  • Select 'Boot Manager'
  • Select 'EFI Internal Shell'
  • Hit ESC to skip startup.nsh, or wait for the 5 second timeout.
  • Shell> fs0:
  • FS0:\> \EFI\fedora\LockDown_ms.efi
  • FS0:\> reset
  • The VM will restart. Let it boot into Fedora as normal. Log in
  • You should see the string 'Secure boot enabled' in dmesg. Secureboot is now enabled for every subsequent boot.

[edit] Testing Fedora CD/DVD Secure Boot in a VM

Once you have a secureboot configured VM as described above, it's easy to use this to test ISO media secureboot support.

  • Use virt-manager to attach the ISO media to your VM
  • Use virt-manager to change the VM boot settings to boot off the CDROM
  • Start the VM
  • Switch to a terminal inside the VM, verify Secureboot is enabled by checking dmesg

[edit] Notes

[edit] EDK2 Licensing Issues

EDK2 contains a FAT filesystem driver that is licensed under terms that make it not acceptable for packaging in Fedora. Particularly that there's a usage restricition only allowing the code to be used in a UEFI implementation. More details here at Edk2-fat-driver

The driver is critical functionality so removing it is not an option.

[edit] Using UEFI with AArch64 VMs

Fedora's AArch64 releases will only run on UEFI, so require UEFI inside the VM. However the steps are slightly different. See this page for complete documentation: https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Architectures/AArch64/Install_with_QEMU

[edit] Extra links