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(Fix realm name typo: FEDORAPEOPLE.ORG -> FEDORAPROJECT.ORG)
 
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==== Installing the Koji CLI ====
 
==== Installing the Koji CLI ====
  
Everything you need to use Koji (and be a Fedora contributor) can be installed in a single step:
+
To use Koji (and be a Fedora contributor) install the fedora-packager package:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
yum install fedora-packager
+
dnf install fedora-packager
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
fedora-packager provides useful scripts to help maintain and setup your koji environment. Additionally, it includes dependencies on the Koji CLI, so it will be installed when you install <code>fedora-packager</code>.  The command is called <code>koji</code> and is included in the main koji package. By default the koji tool authenticates to the central server using Kerberos.  However SSL and username/password authentications are available. You will need to have a valid authentication token to use many features. However, many of the read-only commands will work without authentication.
+
fedora-packager provides useful scripts to help maintain and setup your koji environment. Additionally, it includes dependencies on the Koji CLI, so it is installed when you install <code>fedora-packager</code>.  The command is called <code>koji</code> and is included in the main koji package. By default, the koji tool authenticates to the central server using Kerberos.  You must have a valid authentication token to use many features. However, many of the read-only commands work without authentication.
  
==== Fedora Account System (FAS2) Setup ====
+
If you need help setting up authentication or becoming a Fedora packager use this guide: [[Join_the_package_collection_maintainers]]<br>
  
==== Initial Fedora Setup ====
+
==== Koji Setup ====
 +
 
 +
Before using Koji to build packages, you must have the fedora-packager package installed:
  
In order to interface with the koji server, maintainers will need to run
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
/usr/bin/fedora-packager-setup
+
dnf install fedora-packager
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Each user on a system will need to run fedora-packager-setup if they wish to use Koji to build Fedora packages. Each user has their own certificates that authenticate them.
+
You must have completed fedora-packager-setup:
  
{{admon/tip|Plague users rejoice!|For existing users of plague (the old build system that preceded Koji), <code>fedora-packager-setup</code> will use your existing certificates.  If you did not have plague before, it will get the server CA certs and tell you where to get your user cert.}}
+
<pre>
 +
fedora-packager-setup
 +
</pre>
  
===== Fedora Certificates =====
+
Finally, you must have a valid kerberos ticket. Assuming you are using Koji to build for Fedora, use your [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Account_System?rd=FAS FAS] user name and FEDORAPROJECT.ORG as the domain. Kerberos requires the domain to be in all capital letters.
Koji uses three certificates:
 
; <code>~/.fedora.cert</code> (specific to the Fedora Maintainer) : This cert is generated from [https://admin.fedoraproject.org/accounts/user/gencert this form] in [[Infrastructure/AccountSystem | FAS]]. It should have been generated when you became maintainer. You may need to refresh it when it expires.
 
  
the following are downloaded automatically by fedora-packager-setup and dont need to be manually setup
+
<pre>
 
+
KRB5_TRACE=/dev/stdout kinit your_fas_username@FEDORAPROJECT.ORG
; <code>~/.fedora-upload-ca.cert</code> (The certificate for the Certificate Authority used to sign the user keys.) : It can be manually downloaded from [https://admin.fedoraproject.org/accounts/fedora-upload-ca.cert here] or <code>fedora-packager-setup or fedora-cert -n</code> should fetch it. using the CLI is prefered.
+
</pre>
; <code>~/.fedora-server-ca.cert</code> (The certificate for the Certificate Authority used to sign the build system's server keys.) : It can be downloaded manually from [https://admin.fedoraproject.org/accounts/fedora-server-ca.cert here] or <code>fedora-packager-setup</code> should fetch it.
 
 
 
{{admon/warning|RHEL6 cert bug|If you're using RHEL6, an incompatibility between RHEL6's openssl and nss causes certificates downloaded from fas to fail to work with some fedpkg tools.  [[https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=631000 Bug 631000 rhel6 openssl creates PKCS#8 encoded PEM RSA private key files, nss can't read them]].  The cert can be made compatible using this command: <code>(openssl x509 -in ~/.fedora.cert -text; echo; openssl rsa -in ~/.fedora.cert) > fedora.cert.new</code>}}
 
  
===== Koji Config =====
+
For more information, see [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Infrastructure/Kerberos Kerberos setup].
The global local client configuration file for koji is <code>/etc/koji.conf</code>. You should not need to change this from the defaults for building Fedora packages, as running <code>fedora-packager-setup</code> will create a set of configuration files in ~/.koji/ file for your user. These will allow you to use the primary build system as well as secondary arch build systems.
 
  
== The web interface ==
+
==== Koji Config ====
 +
The global local client configuration file for koji is <code>/etc/koji.conf</code>. You should not need to change this from the defaults for building Fedora packages. These allows you to use the primary build system as well as secondary arch build systems.
  
The primary interface for viewing Koji data is a web application.
+
You can use the koji command directly, or use fedpkg, a script that interacts with the RPM Packaging system and other subsystems, like git and koji itself.
It is available at http://koji.fedoraproject.org/koji/ .
 
Most of the interface is read-only, but if you are logged in (see below) and have sufficient privileges there are some actions that can be performed though the web. For example:
 
 
 
* Cancel a build
 
* Resubmit a failed task
 
* Setup a notification
 
 
 
Those with admin privileges will find additional actions, such as:
 
 
 
* Create/Edit/Delete a tag
 
* Create/Edit/Delete a target
 
* Enable/Disable a build host
 
 
 
 
 
The web site utilizes SSL authentication. In order to log in you will need a valid SSL certificate and your web browser will need to be configured to trust the SSL cert.  Instructions on how to do this are printed when running <code>fedora-packager-setup</code>.
 
 
 
==== Installing SSL Certificates in Firefox ====
 
Once you have created your FAS account, generated your certificate in the form posted in the link above and ran fedora-packager-setup, you will need to import it into your web browser. You can do this in Firefox by doing the following:
 
 
 
 
 
1. Launch Firefox and click on the '''Edit''' menu from the toolbar
 
 
 
2. Select '''Preferences''' in  the sub-menu which appears.
 
 
 
3. This should open the '''Preferences''' window where you can switch to the '''Advanced''' section
 
 
 
4. In the '''Advanced''' section switch to the '''Encryption''' tab
 
 
 
5. Click on the '''View Certificates''' button and the Certificates window will appear
 
 
 
6. Switch to the '''Your Certificates''' tab and click on the '''Import''' button
 
 
 
7. Point to where your Fedora Certificate is located and click '''Open''' (fedora-packager-setup will have told you where it was saved and will have asked you to set a password for the cert)
 
 
 
 
 
You should now be able to see your Fedora Certificate listed under '''Your Certificates''' and you should be able to authenticate with the koji web interface.
 
 
 
===== Notifications =====
 
With Koji you can setup a notification requests, to make sure you do not miss when a package you care about gets built. Login and scroll to the bottom of the page, there you should find a ''[https://koji.fedoraproject.org/koji/notificationcreate Add a notification]'' link and a list of your configured notifications.
 
  
 
== Building with fedpkg targets ==
 
== Building with fedpkg targets ==
  
Every push is automatically tagged via git.  All you have done to build the package is to run,
+
When building with fedpkg within a git repository, every push is automatically tagged via git.  All you have to do to build the package is to run:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 96: Line 55:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
This will trigger a build request for the branch. Easy!
+
This triggers a build request for the branch. Easy!
  
It is also possible to target a specific koji tag as follows:
+
It is also possible to target a specific koji tag:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 104: Line 63:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
for example, if building on rawhide against a special tag created by rel-eng for updating API for many packages, e.g. <code>dist-f14-python</code> you would use the following:
+
For example, if building on rawhide against a special tag created by rel-eng for updating API for many packages, such as <code>dist-f14-python</code>, use the following:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 112: Line 71:
 
==== Chained builds ====
 
==== Chained builds ====
 
{{Admon/warning | chain-builds only work when building on the devel/ branch (aka rawhide).  To chain-build packages to update a released OS version, [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Bodhi/BuildRootOverrides set up an override using bodhi] requesting packages to be included in the proper buildroot.}}
 
{{Admon/warning | chain-builds only work when building on the devel/ branch (aka rawhide).  To chain-build packages to update a released OS version, [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Bodhi/BuildRootOverrides set up an override using bodhi] requesting packages to be included in the proper buildroot.}}
Sometimes you want to make sure than one build succeeded before
+
Sometimes you want to make sure that one build has succeeded before
 
launching the next one, for example when you want to rebuild
 
launching the next one, for example when you want to rebuild
a package against a just rebuilt dependency. In that case
+
a package against a dependency that has just been rebuilt. In that case,
you can use a chain build with:
+
use a chain build with:
  
 
  fedpkg chain-build libwidget libgizmo
 
  fedpkg chain-build libwidget libgizmo
Line 123: Line 82:
 
  fedpkg chain-build libwidget libaselib : libgizmo :
 
  fedpkg chain-build libwidget libaselib : libgizmo :
  
will cause libwidget and libaselib to be built in parallel, followed by libgizmo and then the currect directory package. If no groups are defined, packages will be built sequentially.
+
causes libwidget and libaselib to be built in parallel, followed by libgizmo, and then the package in your current directory. If no groups are defined, packages will be built sequentially.
  
If a build fail, following builds are cancelled but the builds that already succeeded are pushed to the repository.
+
If a build fails, following builds are cancelled, but the builds that already succeeded are pushed to the repository.
  
 
== Scratch Builds ==
 
== Scratch Builds ==
  
Sometime it is useful to be able to build a package against the buildroot but without actually including it in the release. This is called a scratch build. The following section covers using koji directly as well as the fedpkg tool to do scratch builds. To create a scratch build from changes you haven't committed,  do the following:
+
Sometimes it is useful to be able to build a package against the buildroot without actually including it in the release. This is called a scratch build.  
 +
 
 +
The following section covers using koji directly, as well as the fedpkg tool, to do scratch builds.  
 +
 
 +
To create a scratch build from changes you haven't committed,  do the following:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
rpmbuild -bs foo.spec
 
rpmbuild -bs foo.spec
koji build --scratch dist-rawhide foo.srpm
+
koji build --scratch rawhide foo.srpm
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
Line 139: Line 102:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
koji build --scratch dist-rawhide 'git url'
+
koji build --scratch rawhide 'git url'
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
 
Warning: Scratch builds will ''not'' work correctly if your .spec file does something different depending on the value of %fedora, %fc9, and so on.  Macro values like these are set by the ''builder'', not by koji, so the value of %fedora will be for whatever created the source RPM, and ''not'' what it's being built on.  Non-scratch builds get around this by first re-building the source RPM.
 
Warning: Scratch builds will ''not'' work correctly if your .spec file does something different depending on the value of %fedora, %fc9, and so on.  Macro values like these are set by the ''builder'', not by koji, so the value of %fedora will be for whatever created the source RPM, and ''not'' what it's being built on.  Non-scratch builds get around this by first re-building the source RPM.
  
If you are have committed the changes to git and you are in the current branch, you can do a scratch build with fedpkg tool which wraps the koji command line tool with the appropriate options:
+
If you have committed the changes to git and you are in the current branch, you can do a scratch build with fedpkg tool, which wraps the koji command line tool with the appropriate options:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 150: Line 113:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
if you want to do a scratch build for a specific architecture, you can type:
+
To run a scratch build for a specific architecture:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 158: Line 121:
 
<archs> can be a comma separated list of several architectures.
 
<archs> can be a comma separated list of several architectures.
  
finally is possible to combine the scratch-build command with a specific koji tag in the form:
+
Finally, it is possible to combine the scratch-build command with a specific koji tag in the form:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 164: Line 127:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
fedpkg scratch-build --help  or koji build --help for more information.  
+
fedpkg scratch-build --help  or koji build --help for more information.
  
 
== Build Failures ==
 
== Build Failures ==
  
If your package fails to build, you will see something like this:
+
If your package fails to build, you get an error, for example:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 176: Line 139:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
You can figure out why the build failed by looking at the log files. If there is a build.log, start there. Otherwise, look at init.log.
+
Investigate why the build failed by looking at the log files. If there is a build.log, start there. Otherwise, look at init.log.
  
Logs can be found via the web interface in the Task pages for the failed task.  Alternatively the koji client can be used to view the logs via the <code>watch-logs</code> command. See the help output for more details.
+
Each job you successfully start gets a unique task ID, which is listed in its output.
 +
 
 +
Logs can be found in the web interface, in the Task pages for the failed task.  Alternatively, use <code>koji watch-log</code>, along with the task ID, to view the logs. See the help output for more details.
  
 
== Advanced use of Koji ==
 
== Advanced use of Koji ==
  
We've tried to make Koji self-documenting wherever possible. The command line tool will print a list of valid commands and each command supports --help. For example:
+
We've tried to make Koji self-documenting wherever possible. The command line tool prints a list of valid commands, and each command supports --help. For example:
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 212: Line 177:
 
==== Using koji to generate a mock config to replicate a buildroot ====
 
==== Using koji to generate a mock config to replicate a buildroot ====
  
koji can be used to replicate a build root for local debugging
+
koji can be used to replicate a build root for local debugging.
 +
 
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
koji mock-config --help
 
koji mock-config --help
Line 233: Line 199:
 
   -o FILE              Output to a file
 
   -o FILE              Output to a file
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
for example to get the latest buildroot for dist-f12-build run
+
For example to get the latest buildroot for dist-f12-build run:
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
koji mock-config --tag dist-f12-build --arch=x86_64 --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ dist-f12
 
koji mock-config --tag dist-f12-build --arch=x86_64 --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ dist-f12
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
you will need to pass in --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ to any mock-config command to get a working mock-config from fedoras koji.
+
You must pass --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ to any mock-config command to get a working mock-config from Fedora's koji.
  
 
==== Using Koji to control tasks ====
 
==== Using Koji to control tasks ====
Line 278: Line 244:
 
The koji build command creates a build task in Koji. By default the tool will wait and print status updates until the build completes. You can override this with the --nowait option.  
 
The koji build command creates a build task in Koji. By default the tool will wait and print status updates until the build completes. You can override this with the --nowait option.  
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
 +
NOTE: For fedora koji, the git url MUST be based on pkgs.fedoraproject.org. Other arbitrary git repos cannot be used for builds.
  
 
== Koji tags and packages organization ==
 
== Koji tags and packages organization ==

Latest revision as of 19:11, 26 June 2017

Using Koji in Fedora

The Koji Build System is Fedora's RPM buildsystem. Packagers use the koji client to request package builds and get information about the buildsystem. Koji runs on top of Mock to build RPM packages for specific architectures and ensure that they build correctly.

There is also a simplified Chinese edition.

Installing Koji

Installing the Koji CLI

To use Koji (and be a Fedora contributor) install the fedora-packager package:

dnf install fedora-packager

fedora-packager provides useful scripts to help maintain and setup your koji environment. Additionally, it includes dependencies on the Koji CLI, so it is installed when you install fedora-packager. The command is called koji and is included in the main koji package. By default, the koji tool authenticates to the central server using Kerberos. You must have a valid authentication token to use many features. However, many of the read-only commands work without authentication.

If you need help setting up authentication or becoming a Fedora packager use this guide: Join_the_package_collection_maintainers

Koji Setup

Before using Koji to build packages, you must have the fedora-packager package installed:

dnf install fedora-packager

You must have completed fedora-packager-setup:

fedora-packager-setup

Finally, you must have a valid kerberos ticket. Assuming you are using Koji to build for Fedora, use your FAS user name and FEDORAPROJECT.ORG as the domain. Kerberos requires the domain to be in all capital letters.

KRB5_TRACE=/dev/stdout kinit your_fas_username@FEDORAPROJECT.ORG

For more information, see Kerberos setup.

Koji Config

The global local client configuration file for koji is /etc/koji.conf. You should not need to change this from the defaults for building Fedora packages. These allows you to use the primary build system as well as secondary arch build systems.

You can use the koji command directly, or use fedpkg, a script that interacts with the RPM Packaging system and other subsystems, like git and koji itself.

Building with fedpkg targets

When building with fedpkg within a git repository, every push is automatically tagged via git. All you have to do to build the package is to run:

fedpkg build

This triggers a build request for the branch. Easy!

It is also possible to target a specific koji tag:

fedpkg build --target TARGET

For example, if building on rawhide against a special tag created by rel-eng for updating API for many packages, such as dist-f14-python, use the following:

fedpkg build --target 'dist-f14-python'

Chained builds

Warning.png
chain-builds only work when building on the devel/ branch (aka rawhide). To chain-build packages to update a released OS version, set up an override using bodhi requesting packages to be included in the proper buildroot.

Sometimes you want to make sure that one build has succeeded before launching the next one, for example when you want to rebuild a package against a dependency that has just been rebuilt. In that case, use a chain build with:

fedpkg chain-build libwidget libgizmo

The current package is added to the end of the CHAIN list. Colons (:) can be used in the CHAIN parameter to define groups of packages. Packages in any single group will be built in parallel and all packages in a group must build successfully and populate the repository before the next group will begin building. For example:

fedpkg chain-build libwidget libaselib : libgizmo :

causes libwidget and libaselib to be built in parallel, followed by libgizmo, and then the package in your current directory. If no groups are defined, packages will be built sequentially.

If a build fails, following builds are cancelled, but the builds that already succeeded are pushed to the repository.

Scratch Builds

Sometimes it is useful to be able to build a package against the buildroot without actually including it in the release. This is called a scratch build.

The following section covers using koji directly, as well as the fedpkg tool, to do scratch builds.

To create a scratch build from changes you haven't committed, do the following:

rpmbuild -bs foo.spec
koji build --scratch rawhide foo.srpm

From the latest git commit:

koji build --scratch rawhide 'git url'

Warning: Scratch builds will not work correctly if your .spec file does something different depending on the value of %fedora, %fc9, and so on. Macro values like these are set by the builder, not by koji, so the value of %fedora will be for whatever created the source RPM, and not what it's being built on. Non-scratch builds get around this by first re-building the source RPM.

If you have committed the changes to git and you are in the current branch, you can do a scratch build with fedpkg tool, which wraps the koji command line tool with the appropriate options:

fedpkg scratch-build

To run a scratch build for a specific architecture:

fedpkg scratch-build-<archs>

<archs> can be a comma separated list of several architectures.

Finally, it is possible to combine the scratch-build command with a specific koji tag in the form:

fedpkg scratch-build --target TARGET

fedpkg scratch-build --help or koji build --help for more information.

Build Failures

If your package fails to build, you get an error, for example:

420066 buildArch kernel-2.6.18-1.2739.10.9.el5.jjf.215394.2.src.rpm,
ia64): open (build-1.example.com) -> FAILED: BuildrootError:
error building package (arch ia64), mock exited with status 10

Investigate why the build failed by looking at the log files. If there is a build.log, start there. Otherwise, look at init.log.

Each job you successfully start gets a unique task ID, which is listed in its output.

Logs can be found in the web interface, in the Task pages for the failed task. Alternatively, use koji watch-log, along with the task ID, to view the logs. See the help output for more details.

Advanced use of Koji

We've tried to make Koji self-documenting wherever possible. The command line tool prints a list of valid commands, and each command supports --help. For example:

$ koji help

Koji commands are:
build                Build a package from source
cancel-task          Cancel a task
help                 List available commands
latest-build         Print the latest rpms for a tag
latest-pkg           Print the latest builds for a tag
[...] 
$ koji build --help

usage: koji build [options]  tag URL
(Specify the --help global option for a list of other help options)

options:
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
--skip-tag            Do not attempt to tag package
--scratch             Perform a scratch build
--nowait              Don't wait on build
[...] 

Using koji to generate a mock config to replicate a buildroot

koji can be used to replicate a build root for local debugging.

koji mock-config --help
Usage: koji mock-config [options] name
(Specify the --help global option for a list of other help options)

Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --arch=ARCH           Specify the arch
  --tag=TAG             Create a mock config for a tag
  --task=TASK           Duplicate the mock config of a previous task
  --buildroot=BUILDROOT
                        Duplicate the mock config for the specified buildroot
                        id
  --mockdir=DIR         Specify mockdir
  --topdir=DIR          Specify topdir
  --topurl=URL          url under which Koji files are accessible
  --distribution=DISTRIBUTION
                        Change the distribution macro
  -o FILE               Output to a file

For example to get the latest buildroot for dist-f12-build run:

koji mock-config --tag dist-f12-build --arch=x86_64 --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ dist-f12

You must pass --topurl=http://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/ to any mock-config command to get a working mock-config from Fedora's koji.

Using Koji to control tasks

List tasks:

koji list-tasks

List only tasks requested by you:

koji list-tasks --mine

requeue an already-processed task: general syntax is: koji resubmit [options] taskID

koji resubmit 3

Building a Package with the command-line tool

Instead of using the fedpkg target, you can also directly use the command_line tool, koji.

To build a package, the syntax is:

$ koji build <build target> <git URL>

For example:

Warning.png
Replace dist-f14 with the tag you wish to build against, e.g. dist-rawhide
$ koji build dist-f14 'git url'

The koji build command creates a build task in Koji. By default the tool will wait and print status updates until the build completes. You can override this with the --nowait option. </pre>

NOTE: For fedora koji, the git url MUST be based on pkgs.fedoraproject.org. Other arbitrary git repos cannot be used for builds.

Koji tags and packages organization

Terminology

In Koji, it is sometimes necessary to distinguish between a package in general, a specific build of a package, and the various rpm files created by a build. When precision is needed, these terms should be interpreted as follows:

  • Package: The name of a source rpm. This refers to the package in general and not any particular build or subpackage. For example: kernel, glibc, etc.
  • Build: A particular build of a package. This refers to the entire build: all arches and subpackages. For example: kernel-2.6.9-34.EL, glibc-2.3.4-2.19.
  • RPM: A particular rpm. A specific arch and subpackage of a build. For example: kernel-2.6.9-34.EL.x86_64, kernel-devel-2.6.9-34.EL.s390, glibc-2.3.4-2.19.i686, glibc-common-2.3.4-2.19.ia64

Tags and targets

Koji organizes packages using tags. In Koji a tag is roughly a collection of packages:

  • Tags support inheritance
  • Each tag has its own list of valid packages (inheritable)
  • Package ownership can be set per-tag (inheritable)
  • When you build you specify a target rather than a tag

A build target specifies where a package should be built and how it should be tagged afterwards. This allows target names to remain fixed as tags change through releases.

Koji commands for tags

Targets

You can get a full list of build targets with the following command:

$ koji list-targets

You can see just a single target with the --name option:

$ koji list-targets --name dist-f14

Name                           Buildroot                      Destination
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
dist-f14                     dist-f14-build                 dist-f14

This tells you a build for target dist-f14 will use a buildroot with packages from the tag dist-f14-build and tag the resulting packages as dist-f14.

Watch out: You probably don't want to build against dist-rawhide. If Fedora N is the latest one out, to build to the next one, choose dist-f{N+1}.

Tags

You can get a list of tags with the following command:

$ koji list-tags
Packages

As mentioned above, each tag has its own list of packages that may be placed in the tag. To see that list for a tag, use the list-pkgs command:

$ koji list-pkgs --tag dist-f14

The first column is the name of the package, the second tells you which tag the package entry has been inherited from, and the third tells you the owner of the package.

Latest Builds

To see the latest builds for a tag, use the latest-pkg command:

$ koji latest-pkg --all dist-f14

The output gives you not only the latest builds, but which tag they have been inherited from and who built them.