Architectures/ARM/AArch64/QuickStart/zh-cn

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Aarch64 快速入门指南

本文档将帮助那些 aarch64(armv8) 新手开始使用由 ARM 提供的基础模型。 这个模型在使用时包含了许多选项,包括是使用磁盘镜像文件还是 NFS 根文件系统,以及内核的选择(基于你想要使用 Systemd 还是 Busybox 作为 init 进程)。

下载基础模型

第一步将是从 ARM 网站下载基础模型。 模型不是可重发布的,且因此你需要在 ARM 网站创建一个免费账户。一旦完成,你将可以下载基础模型并开始工作。

为了运行这个模型,你可能需要安装一些附加的软件,请按以下命令操作:

sudo yum install xterm xorg-x11-fonts-{misc,100dpi,75dpi}* telnet bridge-utils

解压基础模型

一旦你下载到了模型,你将需要设置你的工作环境。模型可以解压到你选择的路径,在本例中我们将使用你的 home 目录。 解压模型:

mkdir ~/aarch64
cd ~/aarch64
tar xvzf FM000-KT-00035-r0p8-44rel23.tgz

模型和镜像文件配合使用

Important.png
Bug!
在基础模型的虚拟磁盘 I/O 实现中有一个 bug,它使得模型不稳定。在它被修复前,使用 NFS 根文件系统将较为稳定。

使用以下命令,下载并解压 Aarch64 根文件系统磁盘镜像。 磁盘镜像将解压出一个大概 8GB 大小,且将耗费一段时间(取决于你的硬件)。

cd ~/aarch64
wget http://fedorapeople.org/~pwhalen/aarch64/stage4-root-20130423.img.tar.bz2
tar xvjf stage4-root-20130423.img.tar.bz2

下载并解压内核包:

wget http://fedorapeople.org/~pwhalen/aarch64/aarch64-kernels.tar.bz2
tar xvjf aarch64-kernels.tar.bz2

现在模型可以通过使用磁盘镜像作为根文件系统被启动了,执行以下命令:

Systemd:
sudo Foundation_v8pkg/Foundation_v8 --image aarch64-kernels/systemd-3.7-image-foundation.axf --block-device stage4-root-20130423.img --network=bridged
Busybox:
sudo Foundation_v8pkg/Foundation_v8 --image aarch64-kernels/busybox-3.7-image-foundation.axf --block-device stage4-root-20130423.img --network=bridged

模型将耗费几分钟时间启动。'root'密码为'fedora',还有一个账户为 'builder' 密码为 'builder'

网络配置

在启动模型之后,使用 root 账户登陆配置网络为 自动配置。

在宿主机上:

sudo ifconfig ARM0 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

模型和 NFS 根文件系统配合使用

推荐通过 NFS 使用模型,因为它将让你在使用时具有最好的灵活性。使用以下提供的路径是很重要的,因为内核将从给定的路径通过 NFS 挂载根文件系统。

配置 NFS 根文件系统

首先你将需要为根文件系统创建一个目录。 使用和示例一样的路径是很重要的,因为内核将从以下路径中挂载 rootfs。(解压需要一定时间,这取决于你的硬件):

sudo mkdir -p /var/exports/aarch64/stage4-nfs-root
cd /var/exports/aarch64/
sudo wget http://fedorapeople.org/~pwhalen/aarch64/stage4-root-20130423.tar.xz
cd stage4-nfs-root
sudo tar xvJf ../stage4-root-20130423.tar.xz
sudo mv stage4-root-20130423/* .
sudo mv stage4-root-20130423/.profile .
sudo rm -rf stage4-root-20130423
  • 现在为 rootfs 创建一个 NFS 共享,编辑 /etc/exports
sudo vi /etc/exports
/var/exports/aarch64/stage4-nfs-root *(rw,no_root_squash,no_all_squash,async)
  • 启动服务
sudo systemctl start nfs.service  # Fedora
service nfs start   # RHEL

用 NFS 根文件系统启动模型

You need to setup the network for use with the aarch64 model and the addressing used in the kernel arguments. Start the model using one of the following depending on if you would like to use systemd or busybox as your init process (Busybox is currently recommended).

  • Systemd:
sudo Foundation_v8pkg/Foundation_v8 --image aarch64-kernels/systemd-3.7-nfs-foundation.axf --network=bridged
  • Busybox:
sudo Foundation_v8pkg/Foundation_v8 --image aarch64-kernels/busybox-3.7-nfs-foundation.axf --network=bridged

After starting the model you will see a new device created on your host system named 'ARM0', use the following to assign an IP address for use with the model:

sudo ifconfig ARM0 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

Once this adapter is assigned an IP address, the system should boot to either a login prompt or boot with busybox as the init process.

You may need to adjust your firewall to allow connections to the NFS server (Port 2049).


让模型连接因特网

On the host:

  • Enable IP forwarding (as root)
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
  • Set up Network Address Translation:
HOSTEXTERNAL=eth0 # Replace this with your outside interface
sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $HOSTEXTERNAL -j MASQUERADE
sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i $HOSTEXTERNAL -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i ARM0 -o $HOSTEXTERNAL -j ACCEPT
  • Firewall trouble? Try this:
sudo iptables -A INPUT -i ARM0 -j ACCEPT

The model uses Google's Public DNS server (8.8.8.8) for name resolution (/etc/resolv.conf).

Aarch64 Bootstrap 入门

Consider setting the date to something more current. The following command, run as root, will set the date to April 19 2000 hours, 2013:

date 041920002013

Log in using the root account (using the Busybox kernel this will be done by default)

su - builder

Then execute the script:

/usr/sbin/arm-rebuild.sh

The system should begin building packages for the aarch64 bootstrap, below is an example of the output you should see:

[builder@aarch64 ~]$ /usr/sbin/arm-rebuild.sh
building: bouncycastle-1.46-7.fc19 at Thu Apr 25 22:43:27 GMT 2013
INFO: mock.py version 1.1.30 starting...
Start: init plugins
INFO: selinux disabled
Finish: init plugins
Start: run
INFO: Start(/home/builder/bouncycastle-1.46-7.fc19.src.rpm)  Config(stage4-aarch64)
Start: lock buildroot
Start: clean chroot
Finish: clean chroot
Finish: lock buildroot
Start: chroot init
Start: lock buildroot
Mock Version: 1.1.30
INFO: Mock Version: 1.1.30
INFO: calling preinit hooks
INFO: enabled root cache
INFO: enabled yum cache
Start: cleaning yum metadata
Finish: cleaning yum metadata
INFO: enabled ccache
Start: device setup
Finish: device setup
Start: yum update

已知问题