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Strong crypto settings: phase 3, forewarning 2/2

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This is a proposed Change for Fedora Linux.
This document represents a proposed Change. As part of the Changes process, proposals are publicly announced in order to receive community feedback. This proposal will only be implemented if approved by the Fedora Engineering Steering Committee.

Summary

Cryptographic policies will be tightened in Fedora 38-39, SHA-1 signatures will no longer be trusted by default. Fedora 38 will do a "jump scare", introducing the change but then reverting it in time for Beta. Test your setup with TEST-FEDORA39 today and file bugs in advance so you won't get bit by Fedora 38-39.


Owner


Current status

  • Targeted release: Fedora Linux 38
  • Last updated: 2022-09-27
  • devel thread
  • FESCo issue: #2865
  • Tracker bug: <will be assigned by the Wrangler>
  • Release notes tracker: <will be assigned by the Wrangler>

Detailed Description

Secure defaults are an evermoving target. Fedora 28 had StrongCryptoSettings. Fedora 33 had StrongCryptoSettings2. Fedora 39 should have StrongCryptoSettings3.

By Fedora 39, the policies will be, in TLS perspective:

LEGACY
 MACs: All HMAC with SHA1 or better + all modern MACs (Poly1305 etc.)
 Curves: all prime >= 255 bits (including Bernstein curves)
 Signature algorithms: SHA-1 hash or better (no DSA)
 Ciphers: all available > 112-bit key, >= 128-bit block (no RC4 or 3DES)
 Key exchange: ECDHE, RSA, DHE (no DHE-DSS)
 DH params size: >=2048
 RSA params size: >=2048
 TLS protocols: TLS >= 1.2
DEFAULT
 MACs: All HMAC with SHA1 or better + all modern MACs (Poly1305 etc.)
 Curves: all prime >= 255 bits (including Bernstein curves)
 Signature algorithms: with SHA-224 hash or better (no DSA)
 Ciphers: >= 128-bit key, >= 128-bit block (AES, ChaCha20, including AES-CBC)
 Key exchange: ECDHE, RSA, DHE (no DHE-DSS)
 DH params size: >= 2048
 RSA params size: >= 2048
 TLS protocols: TLS >= 1.2
FUTURE
 MACs: All HMAC with SHA256 or better + all modern MACs (Poly1305 etc.)
 Curves: all prime >= 255 bits (including Bernstein curves)
 Signature algorithms: SHA-256 hash or better (no DSA)
 Ciphers: >= 256-bit key, >= 128-bit block, only Authenticated Encryption (AE) ciphers
 Key exchange: ECDHE, DHE
 DH params size: >= 3072
 RSA params size: >= 3072
 TLS protocols: TLS >= 1.2

The flagship change this time will be distrusting SHA-1 signatures on the cryptographic library level, affecting more than just TLS.

OpenSSL will start blocking signature creation and verification by default, with the fallout anticipated to be wide enough for us to roll out the change across multiple cycles with multiple forewarnings to give developers and maintainers ample time to react:

Fedora 36:

  • SHA-1 signatures are distrusted in FUTURE policy (opt-in)
  • TEST-FEDORA39 policy is provided
  • creating and verifying SHA-1 signatures is logged to ease reporting bugs

Fedora 37 StrongCryptoSettings3Forewarning1:

  • (was initially reserved to implement logging of SHA-1 signature operations)

Fedora 38 StrongCryptoSettings3Forewarning2:

  • policies are updated, most notably
  • SHA-1 signatures are distrusted in DEFAULT policy
  • changes are reverted in branched f38 in time for Beta and do not reach users

Fedora 39 StrongCryptoSettings3:

  • changes reach users

The plan is subject to change if it goes sideways somewhere along the way.

So, in Fedora 36, 37 and 38 released distrusting SHA-1 signatures will be opt-in. In Fedora 38 rawhide and Fedora 39 distrusting SHA-1 signatures will happen by default.


Feedback

A discussion has been raised on fedora-devel, a summary is available on LWN.

A change has the potential to prove disruptive and controversial, with much effort being focused on stretching it out in time.

There seems to be a consensus that the change has to be done eventually, but the ideal means of implementing it are in no way clear. The decision to discover code reliant on SHA-1 signatures by blocking creation/verification has not gathered many fans, but not many alternative proposals have been raised in return. A notable one, making the library somehow log the offending operations, has been incorporated in the proposal, though the effectiveness of it is yet to be seen in practice. Another notable takeaway point is the need to call for testing, which would be done in form of writing four Fedora Changes and testing SHA-1 signature distrusting during Fedora 37 & 38 Test Days. The change owner doesn't see the plan as an ideal one and continues to be open for feedback.


Benefit to Fedora

Fedora 39 will ship with more secure defaults to better match the everchanging landscape of cryptographic practices. TLS 1.0 / 1.1 protocol version will be disabled as they're deprecated, minimum key sizes will be raised to keep up with the computational advances etc.

Distrusting SHA-1 signatures specifically is expected to trigger a topical distribution-wide crackdown on weak cryptography, raising the security of the distribution moving forward.


Scope

  • Proposal owners: implement changes described in Summary and Dependencies sections
  • Other developers:

Test your applications with TEST-FEDORA39 policy. Move away from trusting SHA-1 signatures; ideally in time for F38 branch-off, for F39 release at the latest.

Follow SHA1SignaturesGuidance: 1. move away from trusting SHA-1 signatures entirely, or 2. distrust them by default and require explicit user opt-in to use a workaround

Not sure if mass-rebuild is required if we land the change right after f38 branch-off. Maybe a "preview" mass-rebuild can be done with a special build in the F37 timeframe to cut down on F38 FTBFS.

  • Policies and guidelines: update needed

CryptoPolicies section of the packaging guidelines will have to be updated to reflect that SHA-1 signatures must not be trusted by default and provide guidance for openssl and gnutls. Components using workaround APIs must not use them without explicit user opt-in and must be added to a list of applications using a workaround API.

  • Trademark approval: N/A (not needed for this Change)
  • Alignment with Objectives: not with Fedora 37-era ones


Upgrade/compatibility impact

See "User experience".

Upgrade-time issues aren't specifically anticipated; if any were to arise, testing should find them in Fedora 38-times, to be fixed by Fedora 39 release at the latest.

Administrators willing to sacrifice security can apply LEGACY or FEDORA38 policies.


How To Test

Testing actively

On a Fedora 38 rawhide system, install crypto-policies-scripts package and switch to a more restrictive policy with update-crypto-policies --set TEST-FEDORA39.

Proceed to use the system as usual, identify the workflows which are broken by this change.

Verify that the broken functionality works again if you the policy is relaxed back with, e.g., update-crypto-policies --set TEST-FEDORA39:SHA1, file bug reports against the affected components if not filed already. Please start your ticket title with StrongCryptoSettings3: , mention this change page, the version of crypto-policies package and the policies under which your workflow does and does not work.

Especially brave souls can dare to try update-crypto-policies --set FUTURE instead, though this policy is more aggressive than the upcoming defaults.


Testing passively

On a Fedora 38 released system, install a special logging tool from https://copr.fedorainfracloud.org/coprs/asosedkin/sha1sig-tracer Run it and proceed to use your system. Once the tool notifies you about about soon-to-be-blocked SHA-1 signature operations, identify the component and actions leading to these operations, verify that repeating them leads to logging more entries. Ideally also verify that switching to a stricter policy breaks the workflow. File bug reports against the affected components if not filed already. Please start your ticket title with StrongCryptoSettings3: and link to this change page.


User Experience

Things will break. All kinds of things depending on SHA-1 signatures, openly and secretly.

  • On Fedora 36-37 they'll break opt-in.
  • On Fedora 38 rawhide they'll break by default.
  • On Fedora 38 released they'll behave like in Fedora 37.
  • On Fedora 39 they'll break by default again, including the released version.


Dependencies

A small coordinated change with openssl is required. In Fedora 38, openssl should start distrusting SHA-1 signatures when used with no configuration file. This does not affect the majority of scenarios, only applications that do not follow system-wide cryptographic policies.

All reverse dependencies of core cryptographic libraries are affected, especially openssl ones relying on SHA-1 signatures.


Contingency Plan

  • Contingency mechanism: not needed for F38, change will be reverted before Beta anyway
  • Contingency deadline: not needed for F38, change will be reverted before Beta anyway
  • Blocks release? No


Documentation

Workaround API should be added to SHA1SignaturesGuidance. Packaging guidelines should be modified accordingly.


Release Notes

To be done, similarly to https://pagure.io/fedora-docs/release-notes/issue/829