Understanding the Directory Structure
In the graphical environment, a Fedora desktop allows users to work with files, directories and utilities without having to be aware of the underlying system. All applications and files are displayed as icons, regardless of their individual location. An icon on each user's desktop lets them access files and directories within their home directory. When removable storage such as USB drives are connected to the system other icons appear on the desktop for ease of access. When connected to remote file areas such as Samba file shares, SFTP or HTTP locations similar icons with the input name for these locations appear on the user's desktop.
The underlying filesystem structure actually separates these different kind of files so the users can work with different parts of the system. Administrative tasks usually involve heavy interaction with configuration, services, scripts, utilities and device files.
This filesystem architecture is standard for all Fedora systems, and follows the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Specification (FHS). Individual directories may be located on separate drives, on removable storage, or on other networked systems, but they combine to form a single standard hierarchy, or tree, known as a unified filesystem.
Managing Storage and Partitions explains how to attach drives and disk partitions to your filesystem. To share directories between systems on a network, follow the instructions in Using the Network File System.
Locations for Data
User Home Directories
Each standard user account has a separate home directory under
/home/ to store files specific to that user. This contains both their private data files, and the configuration files that define the user settings for each desktop application.
By default, users have full control over their home directory, but no access to the home directories of other users.
Administrator Home Directories
root account uses the home directory
/root/. This ensures that the
root account may function normally when the
/home/ directory is not accessible. Only store data files and scripts in
/root/ if they are for the purposes of system administration. Each administrator should also have a standard user account for their own files.
Removable Devices and Temporary Network Connections
Locations for Software
/usr/ heirarchy (and
/usr/share/ for shared documents and other resources relating to software.
System Configuration Files
Files for settings that apply to the entire system:
Virtual files maintained by the system. These may be read or written to as if they were real files on the drive:
Core System Directories
The Linux Filesystem Heirarchy Specification