F11 User Guide - Accessing the Web
Fedora uses Mozilla Firefox by default in Gnome and Konqueror in KDE to access the World Wide Web (Web). There are many other browsers available to suit different users' needs. Dillo is an example of a lightweight browser, and browsers such as lynx, w3m, and elinks are console based.
Besides being standards-compliant web browsers, Firefox and Konqueror have many features beyond basic web browsing. This chapter explains how to use some of the more popular features, and provides links to further information.
The internet can also be used to transfer files. This chapter covers different methods of doing this using graphical applications as well as the command line. If you wish to transfer files using email, then you should probably read the chapter on communications instead. This is often the best choice for smaller files such as pictures and documents.
Firefox and Konqueror are the suggested web browsers for most users. If you require a more lightweight browser (especially if you are using a slower system), you may want to try Dillo. If you are using the command line, then you may want to use lynx, w3m, or elinks. None of these programs are installed in Fedora by default, but can be installed using the instructions in the chapter on managing software.
Fedora starts Firefox with a default home page that has links to useful Fedora-related sites. Navigate to other web pages by typing the web address - also called the univeral resource locator, or URL - into the long navigation bar across the top of the Firefox screen, replacing "http://start.fedoraproject.org".
If the URL is not known, enter a keyword (or words) into the search bar to the right of the navigation bar, then press the [ENTER] key. The search engine used to perform your search can be changed by left-clicking the logo in the search box. You will be presented with a list of options including Google, Yahoo, eBay, Amazon, and Creative Commons.
Like other web browsers, Firefox makes it possible to save a web page for future reference by adding it to a list of bookmarks. Use the key combination [Ctrl] [d] to bookmark a page you are viewing. To manage bookmarks, use the Bookmark menu from the top of the Firefox window. You can also create a live bookmark (a feed) that automatically checks for updates from a page with an RSS or Atom feed. If a feed is available for a particular web page, there will be an orange icon at the right hand edge of the address bar while you are visiting that page. Left click the feed icon and a preview of the feed is displayed. Select the method you would like to use to subscribe to the feed.
Open a new tab with [Ctrl] [t] . A blank page is presented and a new bar is available under the navigation bar showing all open tabs; to switch between them left-click the desired tab. To close a tab you can either right click to access the context menu or press the red "X" on the tab.
Navigating a large number of open tabs can be difficult. To make it easier, use the arrow icon on the right hand side of the tabs toolbar. Click this to reveal a list of all open tabs that you can switch to by clicking on the relevant item.
Firefox is designed to be moderately fast and lightweight. As a result, some functionality found in other browsers may not be available by default. To solve this problem the Firefox team made the browser extensible, so it is easy to create and integrate extensions that add new functionality to the browser.
To manage and install extensions, plug-ins, and themes, select the Tools > Add-ons menu entry. New extensions are found by visiting the Firefox add-on site. To install an extension from this site follow the Install link, and when prompted click Install Now.
Firefox has many more features than discussed here; you can find more information on Firefox at the Mozilla Firefox website.
Fedora includes several programs for transferring files between different computers on the same network (or on the Internet). On of the most common methods is called the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). There are several graphical programs available to use FTP, including Filezilla and gFTP. You can also use the command line utilities ftp, lftp, and sftp.
Filezilla is an application that allows you to transfer files over FTP using a simple graphical interface. Like many FTP applications, it has two important panes: a file browser for your local machine, and a file browser for the remote machine. This way, you can browse to a file on a remote server and drag-and-drop it to a folder on your local host.
To install the package filezilla, read the chapter on managing software. You can install filezilla by either using the PackageKit application or on the command line by using Yum. More information about FileZilla is available at: http://filezilla-project.org/.
Connecting to a Server
To connect to an FTP server in FileZilla, you must add the server to your Site Manager. You can open the Site Manager dialog in three ways:
- Click on File > Site Manager,
- Click the first icon to the left on the tool bar, or
- Use the keyboard shortcut [ Ctrl ] + S.
When the Site Manager dialog is open, click the New Site button. The first thing FileZilla will want to know is the name that you want to use to refer to this server. There will be a text entry box under My Sites on the left side of the dialog. Here, type whatever name you want to use to refer to the new server. This name doesn't have any technical implications; choose something convenient for you.
On the right side of the dialog box, you will need to enter the following information:
- This is the address of the server. If the server has a URL (such as ftp.server.com), you can type it in here. Otherwise, you'll need to type in the IP address. An IP address is of the form A.B.C.D, where A, B, C, and D are integer values between 0 and 255 (inclusive). The server you are connecting to should provide you with this information.
- You only need to fill in a value for this field if the server does not use the default (port 21 for FTP, 22 for SFTP).
- Here, you can choose FTP, SFTP, FTPS, or FTPES. Only FTP and SFTP will be discussed here.
- This field allows you to choose how you will authenticate with the server. This information should be provided by the server you are trying to connect to.
- User, Password, Account
- These fields will only be active if you user certain Logontypes. If they are active, you should use them for your username, password, and account on the remote server.
- This field has no technical relevance. It may be convenient for you to make a note of something about the server here.
When you have filled out the fields, click [ OK ] to close the Site Manager or [ Connect ] to close the Site Manager and then connect to the FTP server immediately. Pressing [ Cancel ] will ignore any changes you made to the Site Manager and close the dialog.
To connect to a server later on that you have already added to Site Manager, simply open the Site Manager, click on the server you want to connect to, and click [ Connect ].
If you connect to a server successfully, you should see some status messages appear in the top pane indicating that you have connected to the remote server. The right-hand file browser pane should also display the contents of the remote directory you connected to.
To transfer a file, simply drag-and-drop it from one file browser into the folder of the other file browser. You can also select a file in one pane, a folder in the other, and click the appropriate arrow button to transfer the file.
FTP on the Command Line
To use the ftp program, type
ftp at a console prompt. You should be put into an FTP shell that looks like this:
To get a list of commands, type
help. To get a simple description of any command, type
help command. This guide will only cover a fraction of these commands; read about the rest in the ftp man page.
Connecting to an FTP Server
To login to an ftp server, use the
open command. The syntax is
ftp> open ftp.server.com port
ftp.server.com is the FTP server you wish to connect to. It is not necessary to specify a port with this command unless you are connecting to a non-default port. The default port for FTP is port 21. Alternatively, you can connect to an FTP server as you start the ftp program. To do this, use the syntax
ftp ftp.server.com port
port option is, again, optional.
Oftentimes, FTP is used to retrieve a file from a public server. You can pull this file from the server by using the
get file command, where
file is the name or path of the file you want to retrieve. To view all the files in the directory you have connected to, you can use the
ls command. You can also use
pwd to determine which directory you are currently in, and then
cd to change your directory.
To send a file to the server, type
put file, where file is the name or path of the file you wish to send. To view all the files in your local directory (not the remote FTP server), type
lcd. You can also type
lcd directory to change to a new directory on your local machine.
SFTP on the Command Line
Secure FTP, or SFTP, is an encrypted version of FTP. It connects over to the remote server through a secure socket layer, like SSH. This means that it is a much more secure solution than traditional FTP. Use the commend
sftp to start the client. The syntax is nearly identical to the syntax for FTP.
Secure Copy: SCP
Another option for transferring files between two computer with SSH is using the command
scp. This attempts to use the same syntax as the tradition copy command (
cp), but differs in that you can specify remote servers. For example, to send a file to a remote server, type:
$ scp localFile user@server:/destination/directory/
You can similarly fetch a file:
$ scp user@server:/path/to/wantedfile destinationFile
Or even between two remote servers:
$ scp user1@server1:/path/to/source user2@server2:/path/to/destination
In every case that you access a remote server, you will be prompted for your credentials (such as a username and password).
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