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Rawhide

Als Rawhide wird die momentane Entwicklungsversion von Fedora bezeichnet. Sie besteht aus einer Paketquelle namens "rawhide" und einem täglichen Massenspeicher-Abbild, welches alle aktualisierten Fedora Pakete enthält. Nächtliche Live ISO-Abbilder sind als früher Teil des Fedora Release Life Cycle ebenfalls verfügbar.

Rawhide wird manchmal nur grob als "development" oder "master" bezeichnet (da es der "master" Branch in den Git Repo's ist).

Ziele

Für Rawhide sind folgende Ziele gesetzt:

  • To allow package maintainers to integrate the newest usable versions of their packages into Fedora.
  • To allow advanced users access to the newest usable packages in a rolling manner.
  • To allow incremental changes to packages that are either too minor or major to go to stable Fedora releases.
  • To identify and fix issues with packages before they reach a stable release of Fedora.

Rawhide Benutzung

This section discusses rawhide's target users and how to test Rawhide with Live media, within a virtual installation or on a bare metal installation.

Publikum

Rawhide ist an fortgeschrittene Nutzer gerichtet, Tester und Paketbetreuer.

Als Rawhide Nutzer, sollten Sie:

  • Täglich bereit sein Aktualisierungen vorzunehmen. Rawhide erhält mehrere hundert Aktualsierungen täglich, und das Übernehmen dieser Aktualisierungen erlaubt es Fehler schneller zu beheben.
  • Im Stande sein Fehler zu beseitigen. Ab und zu treten Probleme mit Rawhide Paketen auf, und Sie sollten gute Fähigkeiten zur Fehlerbehebung mitbringen, verbunden mit der Fähigkeit Informationen zu Fehlerberichten zu sammeln. Sie brauchen ein gutes Verständnis von YUM und wie Pakete "downgrade"(t) werden, sowie das Beheben von Fehlern beim Rechnerstart.
  • Zeit mitbringen und den Wunsch neue Oberflächen und Änderungen kennenzulernen. Rawhide Pakete orientieren sich start an Upstream Projekten, daher sind Oberflächen und Kommandozeilen-Optionen häufigen Änderungen unterworfen.
  • Häufige Rechnerneustarte zum Testen neuer Kernel Versionen und der Bestätigung des Rechnerstart-Vorgangs. Wenn Sie nicht oft neustarten können, ziehen Sie Rawhide stattdessen eine stabile Veröffentlichung vor.
  • Bereit und in der Lage sein Fehlerberichte im Fehlerfall anzulegen und Betreuern helfen Informationen zusammenzustellen um diese Fehler zu beheben.

If the above doesn't match you, you may wish to instead follow the Branched release (depending on the point in the release cycle) or use regular stable Fedora releases.

Live Medien

After the release of the previous final release, but before the Branch event, nightly builds will be composed from Rawhide. You may be able to use these automated Live images to boot and test Rawhide. These images are automatically composed and not tested by QA.

Virtuelle Instanzen

You may wish to install and run Rawhide in a virtual machine (VM) instance. This allows you to test Rawhide when not running Linux, or avoid any impact to your day-to-day workflow.

See the section below on setting up a Rawhide install.

Beschaffen einer Rawhide Installation

The following options are available to install a fedora rawhide instance:

Installation via Live Medien

If Live media are being composed from Rawhide (see above), you may be able to download the Live media, copy it to local media, boot and install Rawhide.

This is the most fragile way to get a Rawhide install, as Live media is only produced at some points in the cycle, sometimes does not compose, and when it does, may not install correctly.

Gebrauch von rawhide Boot.iso

Unless some problem occurs, a boot.iso is produced each day in the rawhide compose. It may or may not install, depending on the state of the tree and the installer. You can copy the boot.iso to media in any of the normal ways and use it to install.

Installer Verweisung auf Rawhide

You can sometimes install Rawhide by using a stable install media and pointing it to the Rawhide repository for packages to install.

  1. Download the latest stable or branched install media. (netinstall or DVD install)
  2. Copy to local media (USB or DVD or CD)
  3. Boot media and go to the 'Install Source' section and manually enter:
    https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/development/rawhide/x86_64/os/
    (or i386 for 32bit)
  4. Finish the install as normal.

For this method to work, there should be no major changes in Rawhide that the installer is not ready for, such as packages it depends on being retired or other similar situations.

Yum von Bestehender Installation

You may use yum to upgrade from the most recent Stable or Branched release. You will need to have such an install in place and should likely update to the newest updates before starting.

See Upgrading Fedora using yum Rawhide info

This method may fail if there are upgrade path issues (newer packages in Stable or Branched than Rawhide), or broken dependencies.

Kommunikation

There are a number of ways to communicate with other Rawhide users:

IRC

Rawhide discussion is on topic and welcome in both the #fedora-devel[?] and #fedora-qa[?] IRC channels.

Mailing Listen

Rawhide discussion is on topic and welcome in both the test and devel lists.

Bugzilla

Rawhide bugs should be reported against the Fedora Product, rawhide version and the affected component. Please do follow best practices when filing. Remember that IRC and mailing lists are useful to help narrow down if some behavior is a bug or where to report it, but are themselves not bug reporting channels. Always file bugs in Bugzilla.

Note that broken dependencies are mailed to maintainers for each daily Rawhide compose where a package has such broken dependencies. Therefore, it's usually not worth filing a bug for broken dependencies unless they don't appear in the daily report, or you have a fix or improvement to suggest.

Rawhide Zusammenstellen

Package owners must build for rawhide using koji just like you would any other build; you do not go through the bodhi process and the build becomes available almost immediately.

The Rawhide repository is composed every day starting at 08:15UTC. All rawhide builds in the buildsystem at that time are composed and pushed out to mirrors. Rawhide is under "development/rawhide" on the mirrors. You can find a local "development" mirror on the public mirror list. Compose time varies depending on number of changes but is typically between 5 and 8 hours.

Composes are done in a rawhide chroot using the 'mash' tool called from a script maintained by Fedora Release engineering: http://git.fedorahosted.org/cgit/releng/tree/scripts/buildrawhide If the base set of packages in rawhide needed to compose rawhide are broken, the daily compose may fail.

A report for each Rawhide compose is sent to to the test and the devel lists. This report contains output from the 'repodiff' tool from the previous compose as well as a broken dependency report for packages with broken dependencies. Additionally, private email is sent to maintainers with packages containing broken dependencies.

Package maintainers should read and follow the Rawhide updates policy for building any packages in Rawhide.

If needed and approved by FESCo, Mass Rebuilds are done by release-engineering in Rawhide a month or so before the next release branches from it. Typically these are done for a global change over all packages such as a new gcc release, or rpm package format.

Rawhide packages are currently not signed. Work is ongoing to sign at least the majority of them.

Fragen und Antworten

Q: Tut Rawhide nicht Babies essen / Tiere töten / Häuser niederbrennen / ständig abstürzen?

A: Nein. Bitte sagen Sie dass nicht.

Q: Also läuft Rawhide sehr solide und wir alle können es nutzen?

A: Nein. Bitte werfen Sie einen erneuten Blick auf das Publikum. There are things that break from time to time, but if you are able to downgrade or troubleshoot such issues aren't too severe, however most users should stick to Stable Fedora releases.

Q: Ich nutze eine Stabile Fedora Veröffentlichung, aber ich möchte neuere Pakete für Dings Bums nutzen die nur in Rawhide vorhanden sind. Kann ich diese einfach über Yum installieren?

A: Nein. Das Mischen von Veröffentlichungen wie in diesem Fall ist eine sehr schlechte Idee. Bessere Optionen sind::

  • Obtain the src.rpm for the package you wish and try and rpmbuild --rebuild it (which may or may not work depending on dependencies)
  • Ask the Fedora maintainer in a bug report to update the stable version if permitted by policy.

Q: Ich möchte den Rawhide Kernel auf meinem Stabilen Fedora Rechner ausführen. Kann ich dass tun?

A: Manchmal ja. Der Kernel ist eigentständiger als manch andere Rawhide Pakete, und ältere Kernelversionen können einfach gestartet werden. Laden Sie die Pakete einfach herunter, und installieren Sie sie über Yum.

Q: Ist Rawhide ein "rolling release" ?

A: Es hängt davon ab wie dass definiert ist, aber ja.

Q: Woher weiß ich ob die tägliche Rawhide Zusammenstellung fertiggestellt worden ist?

A: You can see the reports it sends to the test and the devel lists. You can also watch fedmsg for the messages that rawhide compose has finished.

Q: Wie kann ich aus Rawhide wieder herauskommen ? Ich möchte mit der Branch fortfahren die zur nächsten Veröffentlichung wird.

A: You can simply disable the rawhide repository in /etc/yum.repos.d/rawhide.repo.

A possible problem is that you might miss the branching point, and your system has already a bunch of post-branch rawhide packages installed. In that case, yum distro-sync will help you to get everything back on the right track.

Q: Muss ich als Paketbetreuer Rawhide-Pakete bauen, oder übernimmt dass der Night Compose?

A: Nein. Sie müssen für Rawhide mittels Koji bauen. The nightly compose only collects packages already built and marked with the appropriate target (rawhide) in koji.

Hinweise und Tipps

  • Your package management system can be of great help in diagnosing and working around issues you find. Do read up and understand: 'yum downgrade' 'yum history' 'yum update --skip-broken' 'koji download-build'.
  • You should update frequently (preferably every day). This allows you to more easily narrow down when a problem or issue appeared. If you apply a week of Rawhide updates at once you have many more packages to examine to narrow down issues.
  • Reboot often (preferably whenever new kernels arrive). This allows you to test the boot up process and packages related to it, as well as newer kernels. Read and understand the Dracut troubleshooting steps.
  • Follow the test and the devel lists for rawhide issues, try and at least skim them before doing your daily Rawhide updates. Look for '[rawhide]' subjects or reports of issues. Additionally if you find a problem and are not sure what to file bugs against you can open a discussion there.
  • Rawhide kernels are made with a large amount of debugging enabled. You can often gain a good deal of performance by passing "slub_debug=-" to your kernel boot line in /etc/grub2.cfg. Additionally, you can run kernels in the Rawhide Kernel Nodebug repo that have all debugging disabled.
  • If you are using a graphical desktop environment in your Rawhide install, you may wish to install several of them. This allows you to still login and troubleshoot when your primary desktop environment is not working for some reason.
  • Have a rescue media handy of the current stable Fedora release for emergencies.

Geschichte

Red Hat Linux "Raw Hide" Ankündigung: on lwn

Der Name kann von vom Liedem mit dem selben Namen kommen, dass mit "Rolling, rolling, rolling, ..." beginnt.

Zu einer Zeit hat Rawhide einen Freeze vor der Veröffentlichung von Milestones erfahren, dies änderte sich mit dem neuen: No_Frozen_Rawhide_Proposal und dem auf Branches basierten Vorgehen.