Archive:Docs/Drafts/ServerInstallationGuide/FC5/Installing Linux

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This chapter has Fedora Core 5 specific installation information.

Contents

Pre-Installation Requirements (Checklist)

In the last chapter we identified some of the planning considerations needed before we even commenced with our server installation. Now we are ready to start configuring our system, we must make sure we have all the configuration settings available during the installation process, so it runs smoothly and is trouble free.

The following checklist can be used as a printable guide to document your configurations before you start your installation. It is intended as a guide only, but is typical of the information required during a system installation.

Server Settings Example Values Your Parameters (as applicable)
Kernel Parameters Nil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Install / Upgrade Install _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Installation Type Server _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Partitioning - Auto / Manual Auto _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Hard Drive 0 /dev/hda _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Hard Drive 1 /dev/hdb _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Hard Drive 2 /dev/sda _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- DVD/CDROM /dev/hdc _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- DVD/CD Burner /dev/hdd _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
GRUB Boot Loader Installed /dev/hda _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
External Network Device - eth0
- IP Address Dynamic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Subnet Mask Dynamic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Internal Network Device - eth1
- IP Address 192.168.1.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Modem Settings
- IP Address Dynamic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
- Subnet Mask Dynamic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Fully Qualified Hostname galaxy.example.com _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Gateway Nil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Primary DNS 127.0.0.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Secondary DNS Nil _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Internet Settings Your Parameters (as applicable)
ISP Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ISP Account Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ISP Account Password _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Static IP / Subnet Or DHCP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
DNS Server 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
DNS Server 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
DNS Server 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
NTP Server _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Helpdesk Phone Number _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Installation Procedure (Step by Step Guide)

Now that we've completed all of our system planning and our checklist has been prepared, we are now in a position to start installing the operating system and required packages on our server - finally some 'hands on' you say.

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The following installation procedure has been written as a step by step guide to fulfil the configuration and package requirements needed in the HOWTO, some people may find it too basic and you are welcome to skip ahead. However please review the list of packages being installed below, this may save you installing them later because they were missed.
Stop (medium size).png
The step by step guide is written for Fedora Core 5 and may not be suitable for other Linux Distributions.


1. Once the bootable DVD/CD initialises and the installation process starts execution, you will be presented with the Fedora Core welcome page, and a "boot:" prompt will be located at the bottom of the screen. The boot prompt allows us to pass specific parameters about any hardware or configuration settings to the kernel. It also allows us to specify that we may have a driver disk for some type of hardware that is not yet supported by the kernel, like a network card or hard drive controller. You may also choose to upgrade an existing version of Fedora from the prompt.

boot: linux dd noprobe acpi=off

Example: The boot prompt with parameters being passed to the kernel.

If you are doing a clean installation of Fedora Core, you would most likely press the <ENTER> key at the "boot:" prompt to continue.

2. If you chose to install a driver disk, you will now be prompted for the diskette. Insert the diskette and follow the directions on screen to install the extra drivers if applicable.

3. You will now be presented with an option to check the integrity of the DVD/CD media you are using to conduct the installation. It is highly advisable to test the media at this point. If your media is scratched, or the integrity of the ISO image was corrupted during its download, then it is highly likely that the installation may stall or become unstable. If in doubt check your media, it only takes a few minutes, and may save you the anguish of having to conduct a second installation attempt.

You will be advised of any failed media checks during this stage, at which point you will need to correct the media problem before continuing.

4. Welcome to Fedora: The next stage in the installation is the loading of the Anaconda system installer, where you will be presented with installation options using an Xwindows frontend. We will continue to use the Anaconda interface throughout the entire installation process.

The release notes will be available for you to view if you choose, which is recommended. They identify what the minimum hardware specifications are for an installation of Fedora Core, and which applications have been added, changed, or removed from the previous version. They also identify and provide solutions to any known bugs which may affect certain hardware, or installation errors that may occur during or after the installation process.

After you have read the release notes, you may select <NEXT> to continue.

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You can choose not to use Anaconda for your installation, or you may have difficulty loading the interface if your video card is not yet supported. If this is the case, you can continue your installation using the standard text mode.
Note.png
The Anaconda installer provides documented help files for the remainder of the installation process. It is recommended you consult these help files when you are uncertain and require further clarification.

5. Language Selection: You will now be asked to choose the language you would like during the installation, make your selection and press <NEXT> to continue.

6. Keyboard Configuration: You are also presented with an option for keyboard, make your selection and press <NEXT> to continue.

7. If you had any previous installations of Fedora Core on the server, Anaconda will detect them and ask you if you would like to conduct a fresh installation, or you would like to upgrade your existing version of Linux. Make your selection and press <NEXT> to continue.


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If you have an existing version of Fedora installed, choosing to install a fresh version will destroy the existing installation depending on your configuration choices.

8. Disk Partitioning Setup: As part of our server planning considerations we should consider how we are going to partition the filesystem. If you are an experienced installer or you are doing an upgrade of some type, you may choose to partition your system manually. Otherwise choose "Remove all partitions on the selected drives and create default layout" and press <NEXT>. WARNING - This will delete all partitions currently on your server.

Manual partitioning is outside the scope of this HOWTO, however you can select the "Review and modify partitioning layout" checkbox if you would like to manually configure or review your server's partitions; this is recommended.

9. Disk Setup: This page allows you to review your new partitions and the filesystem types that have been automatically chosen by the installer. There are many options available here to fully customise your hard drives with your filesystem requirements, but if you are not familiar with partitioning, then the automatic configuration should be fine.

Make any changes that you need and select <NEXT> to continue.

10. Boot Loader Configuration: To boot your system when its turned on, a small application needs to be installed in the Master Boot Record to tell the computer's BIOS where to continue loading the operating system files from, this is part of the bootstrap process. Fedora uses an application called GRUB (the GRand Unified Bootloader) for this process, and if you have a standard IDE hard drive configuration, the boot loader is normally installed on "/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00".

As with step 1, the boot loader can pass extra parameters to the kernel during the boot process. If you need to pass any parameters at boot time and you would like to automate the process, then select "Configure advanced boot loader options". The GRUB configuration can be edited at a later time if needed.

11. Network Configuration: This page allows us to configure the networking requirements of our server.

Depending upon the network topology being implemented, we may either have one or two network devices to install. Remembering that eth0 is connected to the external "Internet" connection; the side where hackers and nasty people lurk.

Device: eth0 Parameters
- Activate on Boot Yes
- Configure with DHCP Yes
- IP/Netmask DHCP

If there is a second network device (eth1), use the following parameters to configure the device.

Device: eth1 Parameters
- Activate on Boot Yes
- Configure with DHCP No
- IP Address 192.168.1.1
- Netmask 255.255.255.0

You now need to set the fully qualified hostname of the server and other miscellaneous settings, remembering to use the host and domain names applicable to your system.

Description Value
- Hostname (manually) galaxy.example.com
- Gateway Empty
- Primary DNS <Your ISPs DNS Server Address>
- Secondary DNS Empty
- Tertiary DNS Empty
Idea.png
You will get an error at this point because we have not set a gateway address for the server, this will be addressed during later configurations. If you are using a static IP address for your external device and you already know your gateway address, you can enter these details now.

12. Time Zone Selection: Use the image of the world map to select the required timezone in your nearest location. You may also choose (optional) to operate your server using the Universal Time Clock, however most people will operate using the time in the current location.

13. Set Root Password: It is important to select a secure password for the super user using a mixture of upper and lower case letters, numbers, and special keyboard characters. The stronger and more complex your root password is, the less chance your system will fall victim to a brute force type attack.

14. Default Installation: We are now going to select what programs and applications (packages) are going to be installed on our server, remove all checkboxes and select "Customise Now" to select individual packages. Select <NEXT> to continue.

15. Package Group Selection: This is the point where we can tailor the installation to our specific needs by adding or removing certain applications and packages. This HOWTO was written to cover specific applications and services that best suits a typical small network, and the installation requires the following additional customisations to meet the server's package requirements.

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The following list details additions on top of the packages already chosen. Do not remove packages that are not listed.
Desktop Environments
GNOME Desktop Environment Selected by default
KDE (K Desktop Environment) Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
Applications
Engineering and Scientific Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
Graphical Internet Add Tick
- Additional Packages gftp
thunderbird
Sound and Video Add Tick
- Additional Packages k3b
xcdroast
Development
Development Tools Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
Servers
DNS Name Server Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
FTP Server Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
Mail Server Add Tick
- Additional Packages squirrelmail
MySQL Database Add Tick
- Additional Packages mod_auth_mysql
php_mysql
Network Servers Add Tick
- Additional Packages dhcp
openldap-servers
Server Configuration Tools Add Tick
- Additional Packages Select all (as required)
Web Server Add Tick
- Additional Packages mod_auth_mysql
mod_authz_ldap
php_ldap
php_mysql
Windows File Server Add Tick - Defaults are Suitable
Base System
Base
- Additional Packages authd
netconfig
- REMOVE PACKAGE dhcpv6_client
System Tools Add Tick
- Additional Packages arpwatch
gnutls-utils
mrtg
net-snmp-utils
X Window System
- Additional Packages switchdesk
Languages - Select additional languages as required.

Once you are satisfied with your selections you may continue.

16. About to Install: If you have selected any additional packages and have triggered a "dependency error", select the option to install the required dependencies and continue the installation process.

17. Installation Stage: The system will now go through the process of formatting your partitions and installing the selected packages. This stage may take a few minutes and is a good time for a break. If you are installing from the CD set, you will be required to change CD during the installation.

18. Installation Complete: The DVD/CD will be automatically ejected from its drive once it has finished installing all the required packages, removed the media from the drive bay and select <REBOOT>.

Congratulations, the majority of the installation has been completed and the server is almost ready for configuration.

Post Installation Tasks

Once the Fedora Core operating system has been installed and the system has been rebooted, there are some minor configurations required before you can log into and start using the system. The firstboot process will now guide you throught the following steps.

1. Welcome: Select <FORWARD> to start the post installation process.

2. License Agreement: Read and accept the license agreement.

3. Firewall: Accept the default firewall settings here, we will configure a more detailed firewall configuration later in Firewall Concepts .

4. SELinux: Select the appropriate SELinux settings for your server. If you are unsure here, select "permissive" and click <FORWARD>.

5. Date and Time: Select the appropriate date and time for your server system, depending upon your earlier selection of either local or universal timezones.

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Do not enable Network Time Protocol yet, it will be configured in more detail later in Network Time Protocol .

6. Display: Configure the X Windows Server with the appropriate settings for your, monitor type, display resolution and colour depth. Being a dedicated server it does not need the latest video drivers for 3D graphics.

7. System User: Enter the details of your generic user account. It is recommended (and good practice) that you use a generic user account at all times, and only switch to the super user account when the higher privileges are needed for administrative tasks.

8. Sound Card: Make the required adjustments for your soundcard and continue. Being a dedicated server it does not need a sound card at all, however you may be able to configure some basic sound files to some of your administrative tasks or alerts to give you a warning when certain events occur.

9. Finish Setup: The entire installation process has now been completed, press <NEXT> to continue to the login screen.

Automated Installation

During the installation phase, the Anaconda system installer creates a "kickstart" configuration file containing all the settings used during your server's build phase. It details the partition types, network settings, packages to install, and pretty much everything that was covered throughout the last two sections. The kickstart file can be used to rebuild your entire system automatically, and is a good way to recover from a system failure.

Backup the configuration file to floppy disk, label it, and store the disk in a save location - hopefully you won't need to use it.

[bash] # mcopy /root/anaconda-ks.cfg a:


Note.png
You need to be logged in as root (after installation) to backup the kickstart config file.

To later rebuild your system using your kickstart configuration, you need to pass the following kernel parameters at the boot prompt. This will start an automatic installation process using your previous settings, and will stop only to prompt for partitioning information.

boot: linux ks=hd:fd0/anaconda-ks.cfg

For further details on using kickstart and the different build options available, visit the Red Hat Kickstart Guide.

Setting Default X Windows

When you log into your new server for the first time, the initial X Windows Manager that loads will be the GNOME Window Manager. You can change the default X Windows Manager display at the login screen by selecting the session tab and changing to the appropriate Window Manager.

The Window Manager can also be changed at the command line interface after logging in, by typing one of the following commands at the prompt:

[bash] # switchdesk gnome

or

[bash] # switchdesk kde

Your default settings will now be saved, however you will need to restart the X Windows Server before the settings are applied. This can be done quickly by pressing <CTRL> + <ALT> + <BACKSPACE>.

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